Journal of Neurology

, Volume 263, Issue 3, pp 477–484 | Cite as

Long-term outcome after cerebral venous thrombosis: analysis of functional and vocational outcome, residual symptoms, and adverse events in 161 patients

  • Sini Hiltunen
  • Jukka Putaala
  • Elena Haapaniemi
  • Turgut Tatlisumak
Original Communication


Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) affects mainly working-aged individuals. Functional recovery after CVT is generally considered good with about 3/4 of patients achieving short-term independence. However, vascular events, long-term functional outcome, and employment after CVT remain poorly investigated. We identified consecutive adult CVT patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital (1987–2013) and invited them to a follow-up visit. Each clinical examination was combined with interview. We also recorded recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and hemorrhagic events during follow-up and antithrombotic medication use. A modified Rankin Scale (mRS) served to assess functional outcome. Logistic regression served to identify independent factors associated with unemployment and functional recovery. Of the 195 patients identified, 21 died, 9 declined to participate, and 4 were excluded from the study. Thus, 161 patients (106 women) underwent an examination after a median of 39 months (interquartile range 14–95). VTE (one of which was CVT) occurred in 9 (6 %) patients, and severe hemorrhagic events in 10 (6 %). Functional outcome was good, with 84 % scoring 0–1 on the mRS; 42 % reported residual symptoms. Altogether, 91 (57 %) patients were employed. After adjusting for age and sex, a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score >2 at admission and low education level, associated with both unfavorable functional outcome and unemployment. Long-term functional outcome after CVT may appear good if measured with mRS, but patients often have residual symptoms and are frequently unable to return to their previous work.


Cerebral venous thrombosis Sinus thrombosis Long-term outcome Anticoagulation Follow-up Vocational status 



We thank Marja Metso (RN) and Saija Eirola (RN) for their dedication and technical support.

Sources of funding

This project received funding from the Helsinki University Hospital Research Funds (TT) and the National Graduate School of Clinical Investigation (SH).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest


Ethical standards

All human studies must state that they have been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki.

Supplementary material

415_2015_7996_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (322 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 321 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sini Hiltunen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jukka Putaala
    • 1
  • Elena Haapaniemi
    • 1
  • Turgut Tatlisumak
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyHelsinki University HospitalHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.National School of Clinical InvestigationHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Institute of Neuroscience and PhysiologySahlgrenska Academy at University of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  4. 4.Department of NeurologySahlgrenska University HospitalGothenburgSweden

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