Journal of Neurology

, Volume 262, Issue 6, pp 1433–1439 | Cite as

Significance of the hot-cross bun sign on T2*-weighted MRI for the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy

  • Kazushi DeguchiEmail author
  • Kazuyo Ikeda
  • Kodai Kume
  • Tadayuki Takata
  • Yohei Kokudo
  • Masaki Kamada
  • Tetsuo Touge
  • Naomi Honjo
  • Tsutomu Masaki
Original Communication


Although the sensitive detection of putaminal iron deposition by T2*-weighted imaging (T2*-WI) is of diagnostic value for multiple system atrophy (MSA), the diagnostic significance of the pontine hot-cross bun (HCB) sign with increased ferritin-bound iron in the background remains unknown. We retrospectively evaluated the cases of 33 patients with cerebellar-form MSA (MSA-C) and 21 with MSA of the parkinsonian form (MSA-P) who underwent an MRI study with a 1.5-T system. Visualization of the HCB sign, posterior putaminal hypointensity and putaminal hyperintense rim on T2*-WI was assessed by two neurologists independently using an established visual grade, and were compared with those on T2-weighted imaging (T2-WI). The visual grade of pontine and putaminal signal changes was separately assessed for probable MSA (advanced stage) and possible MSA (early stage). T2*-WI demonstrated significantly higher grades of HCB sign than T2-WI (probable MSA-C, n = 27, p < 0.001; possible MSA-C, n = 6, p < 0.05; probable MSA-P, n = 13, p < 0.01). The visual grade of the HCB sign on T2*-WI in the possible MSA-C patients was comparable to that in the probable MSA-C patients. Although the HCB sign in MSA-P was of lower visual grade than in MSA-C even on T2*-WI, some patients showed evolution of the HCB sign preceding the appearance of the putaminal changes. These findings suggest that T2*-WI is of extreme value for detecting the HCB sign, which is often cited as a hallmark of MSA. The appearance of the HCB sign on T2*-WI might not only support but also improve the diagnosis of MSA.


Multiple system atrophy MRI T2*-weighted imaging Hot-cross bun sign Iron 



This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant No. 24591297.

Conflicts of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

The study was approved by the appropriate ethics committee and has therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazushi Deguchi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Kazuyo Ikeda
    • 3
  • Kodai Kume
    • 2
  • Tadayuki Takata
    • 2
  • Yohei Kokudo
    • 2
  • Masaki Kamada
    • 3
  • Tetsuo Touge
    • 4
  • Naomi Honjo
    • 5
  • Tsutomu Masaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Gastroenterology and NeurologyKagawa University Faculty of MedicineKita-gunJapan
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyKagawa University HospitalKita-gunJapan
  3. 3.Department of Intractable Neurological ResearchKagawa University Faculty of MedicineKita-gunJapan
  4. 4.Department of Health SciencesKagawa University Faculty of MedicineKita-gunJapan
  5. 5.Department of RadiologyOsaka Neurosurgical HospitalTakamatsuJapan

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