Journal of Neurology

, Volume 260, Issue 8, pp 1970–1977 | Cite as

Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Self-Assessment Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson’s disease in Serbia

  • Tatjana Gazibara
  • Iva Stankovic
  • Aleksandra Tomic
  • Marina Svetel
  • Darija Kisic Tepavcevic
  • Vladimir S. Kostic
  • Tatjana Pekmezovic
Original Communication


The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) worsen over time affecting performance and causing disability. The purpose of this study was to translate the Self-Assessment Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease (SADS-PD) into the Serbian language and assess its validity and reliability. From January to July 2012, 114 consecutive PD patients were recruited at the Neurology Clinic in Belgrade. The inclusion criteria were: ability to walk independently for at least 10 m, ability to stand for at least 90 s. The exclusion criteria were: cognitive impairment, the presence of other major neurologic, psychiatric, visual, audio-vestibular, and orthopedic disturbances. The 25-item SADS-PD was translated according to internationally-accepted methodology. The internal consistency of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Test–retest reliability was evaluated using Kendall’s concordance coefficient for total scores. To evaluate construct validity, an exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis, varimax rotation) was performed. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.984. Kendall’s concordance coefficient was 0.994. Duration of the disease, Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) stage, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score, history of falls, Hamilton’s Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales (HDRS and HARS) scores were significantly correlated with the total SADS-PD score. On factor analysis 25 items in the SADS-PD questionnaire were separated in two clusters with total matrix variance of 79.7 %. The psychometric properties of the cross-culturally adapted SADS-PD questionnaire (Serbian version) have outstanding validity and reliability as an instrument for evaluation of the extent of disability in patients with PD.


Self-Assessment Disability Scale Parkinson’s disease Validation Reliability Serbia 



We sincerely appreciate Dr Richard G. Brown for allowing us to adapt the original version of the SADS-PD. The authors would like to thank Ivana Gligorijevic and Mitar Pljevaljcic for forward and backward translations of the SADS-PD as well as Professor Goran Trajkovic, for final statistical consultancy. This investigation was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (Grants No 175087 and 175090).

Conflicts of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatjana Gazibara
    • 1
  • Iva Stankovic
    • 2
  • Aleksandra Tomic
    • 2
  • Marina Svetel
    • 2
  • Darija Kisic Tepavcevic
    • 1
  • Vladimir S. Kostic
    • 2
  • Tatjana Pekmezovic
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Epidemiology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Centre of SerbiaUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

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