A series of patients with subpial hemorrhage: Clinical manifestation, neuroradiological presentation and therapeutic implications
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Subpial hemorrhage is a rare finding in patients with a variable spectrum of neurological symptoms and signs. Here we present a series of 10 patients with subpial hemorrhage, 53 to 80 years old, diagnosed and treated within the last 4 years at a single center. Patients were identified based on imaging criteria with either magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) showing blood along the cortical surface. Presenting symptoms were diverse, with seizures being the most frequent followed by headaches and focal neurological signs such as sensory or motor deficits. Of 7 patients undergoing lumbar puncture, none showed fresh blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) xanthochromia. Neither digital subtraction angiography (DSA) nor MR venography (MRV) confirmed cerebral vein thrombosis as a possible etiologic factor for subpial hemorrhage. Patients for whom follow-up was available (n = 8), showed complete recovery indicating an excellent prognosis. Overall, the etiology of subpial hemorrhage remains obscure. Treatment should be symptomatic with particular attention to antiepileptic medication.
Key wordssubpial hemorrhage cortical vein thrombosis seizure subarachnoid hemorrhage hypertension
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