Journal of Neurology

, Volume 252, Supplement 4, pp iv1–iv4

A new approach to understand the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease


DOI: 10.1007/s00415-005-4002-y

Cite this article as:
Nambu, A. J Neurol (2005) 252(Suppl 4): iv1. doi:10.1007/s00415-005-4002-y


Here I introduce a dynamic model of the basal ganglia functions for the control of voluntary movement: information through major pathways in the cortico-basal ganglia loop, i. e., the cortico-STN-GPi/SNr “hyperdirect”, cortico-striato-GPi/SNr “direct” and cortico-striato-GPe-STN-GPi/SNr “indirect” pathways, dynamically controls the activity of the thalamus and cortex and releases only the selected motor program at the selected timing. Based on the dynamic model, the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease and the mechanism for the effectiveness of stereotaxic surgery can better be explained by an increase or decrease of disinhibition and inhibition in the thalamus and cortex in the temporal and spatial domains.

Key words

basal ganglia globus pallidus subthalamic nucleus Parkinson’s disease stereotaxic surgery 

Copyright information

© Steinkopff-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of System NeurophysiologyNational Institute for Physiological SciencesOkazaki 444-8585Japan

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