Journal of Neurology

, Volume 252, Issue 10, pp 1155–1166 | Cite as

The spectrum of differential diagnosis in neurological patients with livedo reticularis and livedo racemosa

A literature review
  • M. KraemerEmail author
  • D. Linden
  • P. Berlit


Livedo is a cutaneous sign of striking violaceous netlike patterned erythema of the skin. This dermatological phenomenon is of special interest in the differential diagnosis in neurological patients. In 1907 Ehrmann distinguished two different patterns of livedo: the pathological livedo racemosa and the physiological livedo reticularis. Despite important clinical differences, in the English language literature the heading livedo reticularis is still used for all types of livedo. A literature review about the spectrum of differential diagnosis in patients with livedo reticularis (especially cutis marmorata and amantadine–induced livedo reticularis) and livedo racemosa (especially Sneddon’s syndrome, Divry–van Bogaert syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, polyarteritis nodosa, cholesterol embolization syndrome, livedoid vasculopathy and haematological diseases) is provided.

Key words

livedo reticularis livedo racemosa Sneddon’s syndrome 


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© Steinkopff-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyAlfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach HospitalEssenGermany

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