Journal of Neurology

, Volume 251, Issue 11, pp 1398–1401

Analysis of familial and sporadic restless legs syndrome in age of onset, gender, and severity features

  • Melissa Hanson
  • Melissa Honour
  • Amanda Singleton
  • Anthony Crawley
  • Andrew Singleton
  • John Hardy
  • Katrina Gwinn-Hardy
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION

Abstract

Restless Legs Syndrome is characterized by the irresistible, often indescribable unpleasant urge to move the limbs while resting. It has an estimated prevalence of ~29.3 % in US private practice. Restless Legs Syndrome often has a familial component; whether the familial and non-familial forms differ in terms of clinical features has previously been investigated, with the only significant factor emerging as younger age at onset in familial cases. Our study further explores a possible underlying difference between familial and sporadic forms of RLS by comparing familial RLS with sporadic RLS in terms of demographic and clinical features including subject gender, age of onset, and severity measures based an the IRLSSG severity scale. Both gender and family history are significant predictors of onset age in an overall model and also significant when analyzed independently. Participants who reported more severe RLS symptoms were significantly younger in age and progressed more rapidly. Two variables from the IRLSSG severity scale were significantly associated with age of onset when tested independently: discomfort and the urge to move the limb for relief. Our analysis supports the prevailing hypothesis that RLS is divided into earlier onset disease with a clear genetic component and later onset disease wich unclear etiology, and that one or more endophenotypes might exist within the disorder which could further characterize these subjects for future genetic studies.

Key words

RLS age onset familial sporadic severity severity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Odin P, Mrowka M, Shing M (2002) Restless legs syndrome. Eur J Neurol 9(Suppl 3):59–67 (Review)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rothdach AJ, Trenkwalder C, Haberstock J, Keil U, Berger K (2000) Prevalence and risk factors of RLS in an elderly population: the Memory and Morbidity in Augsburg Elderly (MEMO) study. Neurology 54:1064–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Phillips B, Young T, Finn L, Asher K, Hening WA, Purvis C (2000) Epidemiology of restless legs symptoms in adults. Arch Intern Med 160:2137–2141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lavigne GJ, Montplaisir JY (1994) Restless legs syndrome and sleep bruxism: prevalence and association among Canadians. Sleep 17:739–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    The international Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (Arthur S, alters MD—Group Organizer and Correspondent) (1995) Towards a better definition of the restless legs syndrome. Mov Disord 10:634–642.6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Winkelmann J, Wetter TC, Collado-Seidel V, Gasser T, Dichgans M, Yassouridis A, Trenkwalder C (2000) Clinical characteristics and frequency of the hereditary restless legs syndrome in a population of 300 patients. Sleep 23:597–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Desautels A, Turecki G, Montplaisir J, Sequeira A, Verner A, Rouleau GA (2001) Identification of a major susceptibility locus for restless legs syndrome on chromosome 12q. Am J Hum Genet, pp 1266–1270Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bonati,M, Ferini-Strambi, L,Aridon P, Oldani A, Zucconi M, Casari G (2003) Autosomal dominant restless legs syndrome maps an chromosome 14q. Brain 126:1485–1492CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Winkelmann J (2002) The genetics of restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med 2:S9–S12Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Allen RP, Earley CJ (2000) Defining the phenotype of the restless legs syndrome (RLS) using age-of-symptom onset. Sleep Med 1:11–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gwinn-Hardy K (2002) Genetics of parkinsonism. Mov Disord 4:645–656Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Winkelmann J, Muller-Myhsok B, Wittchen HU, Hock B, Prager M, Pfister H, Strohle A, Eisensehr I, Dichgans M, Gasser T, Trenkwalder C (2002) Complex segregation analysis of restless legs syndrome provides evidente for an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance in early age at onset families. Ann Neurol, pp 297–302Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nichols DA, Allen RP, Grauke JH, Brown JB, Rice ML, Hyde PR, Dement WC, Kushida CA (2003) Restless Legs Syndrome Symptoms in Primary Care, A Prevalence Study. Arch Intern Med 163:232–329Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Allen RP, Kushida CA, Atkinson MJ (2003) Factor analysis of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group’s scale for restless legs severity. Sleep Med (2):133–135Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hardy J, Gwinn-Hardy K (1998) Genetic classification of primary neurodegenerative disease. Science 282(5391):1075–1079PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa Hanson
    • 1
  • Melissa Honour
    • 2
  • Amanda Singleton
    • 1
  • Anthony Crawley
    • 3
  • Andrew Singleton
    • 3
  • John Hardy
    • 1
  • Katrina Gwinn-Hardy
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of NeurogeneticsNational Institute on Aging National Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Division of General MedicineBrigham Women’s HospitalBostonUSA
  3. 3.Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke National, Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, USABethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations