Autonomic dysfunctions in idiopathic Parkinson's disease
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Most patients with Parkinson's disease experience autonomic dysfunction at some point in the course of their disease. In contrast to autonomic dysregulation in multisystem atrophy, they are less severe, and they frequently cause troublesome symptoms only in advanced stages of the disease. The quality of life is nevertheless substantially restricted. Cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital autonomic dysfunction is predominant. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment can greatly benefit the patient. An interdisciplinary approach is desirable in most cases.