Paternal lineages and forensic parameters based on 23 Y-STRs (Powerplex® Y23) in Mestizo males from Mexico City

  • Yadira Lizethe López-Ramírez
  • José Alonso Aguilar-Velázquez
  • Mauro López-Armenta
  • Mariana Ruiz-Hernández
  • Héctor Rangel-VillalobosEmail author
Population Data


We analyzed 307 Mexican-Mestizo (admixed) males from Mexico City with the Powerplex® Y23 system. The complete list of Y-STR haplotypes was uploaded into the YHRD database (accession number YA004275). The discriminatory capacity (98.70 %) and gene diversity (D = 99.99 %) were calculated, improving the haplotype diversity regarding previous studies in Mexico based on 17 Y-STRs and 12 Y-STRs. Haplogroup distribution assignment was inferred by means of two different online-available algorithms. The Native American Q* haplogroup was the most frequent (66.2 %), followed by the European R1b lineage (19.5 %). In addition, eight Eurasian (3.9%) and two African (6.6%) haplogroups were observed in this population sample from Mexico City. Interestingly, AMOVA test showed a low but significant differentiation among Mexican-Mestizos (Fst = 1.52%; p = 0.0000), suggesting that four population clusters allow to explain their genetic structure according to geographic criteria: north, west, center, and south.


Y-STRs Mexico City Mestizos Powerplex® Y23 Haplogroup inference 



The authors thank all volunteers included in this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

For this purpose, we recruited 307 volunteers from Mexico City who signed a consent form before to the inclusion in our study, according to the ethical guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration. The anonymity of these individuals was preserved at all times. This project was approved by the Ethical Research Committee at the Instituto de Ciencias Forenses (INCIFO) of Mexico City.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

414_2019_2183_Fig1_ESM.png (166 kb)

Supplementary Fig. S1 MDS plot based on Rst genetic distances based on (a) 15 Y-STRs included in the Y-filer kit (data available in Table S3), and (b) 23 Y-STRs included in the Powerplex® Y23 system (data available in Table S4) (PNG 165 kb)

414_2019_2183_MOESM1_ESM.tiff (456 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 456 kb)
414_2019_2183_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (67 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 67 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio de Genética del Instituto de Ciencias Forenses (INCIFO)Tribunal Superior de Justicia de la Ciudad de MéxicoMéxico CityMéxico
  2. 2.Instituto de Investigación en Genética MolecularCentro Universitario de la Ciénega, Universidad de Guadalajara (CUCiénega-UdeG)OcotlánMéxico
  3. 3.Doctorado en Genética Humana Doctorado en Genética HumanaCentro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud (CUCS-UdeG)GuadalajaraMéxico

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