Genetic structure and forensic characteristics of Saraiki population from Southern Punjab, Pakistan, revealed by 20 Y-chromosomal STRs

  • Atif AdnanEmail author
  • Allah Rakha
  • Fuad Ameen
  • Abdullah A. Alarfaj
  • A. Almansob
  • Chuan-Chao Wang
  • Jie LuEmail author
  • Jiaxin XingEmail author
Population Data


Pakistan harbors more than 18 major ethnic groups which speak 60 different languages. People speaking Saraiki languages are known as Saraiki or Multani. They are mainly residents of Southern Punjab including Multan, Dear Ghazi Khan, Rajanpur, and Rahim Yar khan. Here, we reported the data of 20 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) genotyped with the Goldeneye® 20Y kit in 154 unrelated Saraiki individuals. We observed 141 different haplotypes on 20 Y-STR loci and the gene diversity (GD) ranged from 0.6566 (DYS448) to 0.9538 (DYS385a, b). The overall haplotype diversity was 0.9989 at 20 Y-STRs loci. Furthermore, we performed population genetic analyses by including data from 26 other South Asian populations. The presented haplotype data was recently included in the Y-Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) for future forensic and other usage.


Saraiki Pakistan YHRD Goldeneye 20Y Forensic and gene diversity 



We are thankful to Sibte Hadi (University of Central Lancashire, UK) for proofreading the manuscript.


This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81771229) along with the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University through research group (RGP-1438-029).

Compliance with ethical standards

All participants gave their informed consent in writing after the study aims and procedures were carefully explained to them in their own language. The study was approved by the ethical review board of the China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China, and in accordance with the standards of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Figure S1 Two-dimensional plot from multi-dimensional scaling analysis of Rst-values based on Yfiler haplotypes for Saraiki population with other 26 reference populations from South Asia. (JPG 225 kb).
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Figure S2 Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree of the Saraiki population with other 26 reference populations from South Asia based on a distance matrix of Fst (JPG 1186 kb).
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Figure S3 PCA Analysis for Saraiki population from Southern Punjab, Pakistan (PNG 31.4 kb).
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Anatomy, School of Basic MedicineChina Medical UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Department of Forensic SciencesUniversity of Health SciencesLahorePakistan
  3. 3.Department of Botany & Microbiology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Anthropology and EthnologyXiamen UniversityXiamenChina
  5. 5.Department of Forensic Genetics and Biology, School of Forensic MedicineChina Medical UniversityShenyangChina

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