Genetic structure and forensic characteristics of Saraiki population from Southern Punjab, Pakistan, revealed by 20 Y-chromosomal STRs
Pakistan harbors more than 18 major ethnic groups which speak 60 different languages. People speaking Saraiki languages are known as Saraiki or Multani. They are mainly residents of Southern Punjab including Multan, Dear Ghazi Khan, Rajanpur, and Rahim Yar khan. Here, we reported the data of 20 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) genotyped with the Goldeneye® 20Y kit in 154 unrelated Saraiki individuals. We observed 141 different haplotypes on 20 Y-STR loci and the gene diversity (GD) ranged from 0.6566 (DYS448) to 0.9538 (DYS385a, b). The overall haplotype diversity was 0.9989 at 20 Y-STRs loci. Furthermore, we performed population genetic analyses by including data from 26 other South Asian populations. The presented haplotype data was recently included in the Y-Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) for future forensic and other usage.
KeywordsSaraiki Pakistan YHRD Goldeneye 20Y Forensic and gene diversity
We are thankful to Sibte Hadi (University of Central Lancashire, UK) for proofreading the manuscript.
This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81771229) along with the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University through research group (RGP-1438-029).
Compliance with ethical standards
All participants gave their informed consent in writing after the study aims and procedures were carefully explained to them in their own language. The study was approved by the ethical review board of the China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China, and in accordance with the standards of the Declaration of Helsinki.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 3.Roewer L (2003) The Y-Short Tandem Repeat Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) and male population stratification in Europe—impact on forensic genetics. Forensic Sci Rev 15:165–172Google Scholar
- 4.Kureshy K, Ahmad K (1977) A geography of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, KarachiGoogle Scholar
- 5.Purps J, Siegert S, Willuweit S, Nagy M, Alves C, Salazar R, Angustia SMT, Santos LH, Anslinger K, Bayer B, Ayub Q, Wei W, Xue Y, Tyler-Smith C, Bafalluy MB, Martínez-Jarreta B, Egyed B, Balitzki B, Tschumi S, Ballard D, Court DS, Barrantes X, Bäßler G, Wiest T, Berger B, Niederstätter H, Parson W, Davis C, Budowle B, Burri H, Borer U, Koller C, Carvalho EF, Domingues PM, Chamoun WT, Coble MD, Hill CR, Corach D, Caputo M, D’Amato ME, Davison S, Decorte R, Larmuseau MHD, Ottoni C, Rickards O, Lu D, Jiang C, Dobosz T, Jonkisz A, Frank WE, Furac I, Gehrig C, Castella V, Grskovic B, Haas C, Wobst J, Hadzic G, Drobnic K, Honda K, Hou Y, Zhou D, Li Y, Hu S, Chen S, Immel UD, Lessig R, Jakovski Z, Ilievska T, Klann AE, García CC, de Knijff P, Kraaijenbrink T, Kondili A, Miniati P, Vouropoulou M, Kovacevic L, Marjanovic D, Lindner I, Mansour I, al-Azem M, Andari AE, Marino M, Furfuro S, Locarno L, Martín P, Luque GM, Alonso A, Miranda LS, Moreira H, Mizuno N, Iwashima Y, Neto RSM, Nogueira TLS, Silva R, Nastainczyk-Wulf M, Edelmann J, Kohl M, Nie S, Wang X, Cheng B, Núñez C, Pancorbo MM, Olofsson JK, Morling N, Onofri V, Tagliabracci A, Pamjav H, Volgyi A, Barany G, Pawlowski R, Maciejewska A, Pelotti S, Pepinski W, Abreu-Glowacka M, Phillips C, Cárdenas J, Rey-Gonzalez D, Salas A, Brisighelli F, Capelli C, Toscanini U, Piccinini A, Piglionica M, Baldassarra SL, Ploski R, Konarzewska M, Jastrzebska E, Robino C, Sajantila A, Palo JU, Guevara E, Salvador J, Ungria MCD, Rodriguez JJR, Schmidt U, Schlauderer N, Saukko P, Schneider PM, Sirker M, Shin KJ, Oh YN, Skitsa I, Ampati A, Smith TG, Calvit LS, Stenzl V, Capal T, Tillmar A, Nilsson H, Turrina S, de Leo D, Verzeletti A, Cortellini V, Wetton JH, Gwynne GM, Jobling MA, Whittle MR, Sumita DR, Wolańska-Nowak P, Yong RYY, Krawczak M, Nothnagel M, Roewer L (2014) A global analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci. Forensic Sci Int Genet 12:12–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2014.04.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Ballantyne KN, Kayser M (2012) Additional Y-STRs in forensics: why, which, and when. Forensic Sci Rev 24:63–78Google Scholar
- 8.Gusmão L, Butler JM, Carracedo A, Gill P, Kayser M, Mayr WR, Morling N, Prinz M, Roewer L, Tyler-Smith C, Schneider PM (2006) DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis. Int J Legal Med 120:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Kopelman NM, Stone L, Gascuel O, Rosenberg NA (2013) The behavior of admixed populations in neighbor-joining inference of population trees. Pac Symp Biocomput 273–284Google Scholar