Genetic polymorphisms and mutation rates of 16 X-STRs in a Han Chinese population of Beijing and application examples in second-degree kinship cases

  • Man Chen
  • He Ren
  • Zhiyong Liu
  • Jing Zhao
  • Chong Chen
  • Yan Shi
  • Li Jia
  • Feng Cheng
  • Tong Chen
  • Qingwei Fan
  • Yaran Yang
  • Yacheng Liu
  • Gengqian ZhangEmail author
  • Jiangwei YanEmail author
Short Communication


As a supplementary tool in forensic cases, X chromosomal short tandem repeats (X-STRs) might bridge large pedigree gaps and bring inspiration to forensic practices for the special mode of inheritance. To standardize the application of X-STRs, the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) presented recommendations concentrating on biostatistical evaluations. Following this guideline, in this study, 1247 (655 females and 592 males) unrelated individuals and 770 families originating from a Han Chinese population of Beijing were investigated with 16 X-STRs. The combined PDF and PDM were 0.999999999999994 and 0.999999997, respectively. The combined MECKrüger, MECKishida, MECDesmarais, and MECDesmarais duo were 0.999972736708864, 0.999999975670766, 0.999999975720931, and 0.999993489709197, respectively. In addition, a population comparison demonstrated that genetic heterogeneity widely exists between the Han population of Beijing and other populations, especially southern Han Chinese, European, and West African populations. Additionally, the overall mutation rates of the paternal and maternal germlines of the 16 X-STRs were 0.0021 and 0.0003, respectively. Among them, HPRTB showed the highest paternal mutation rate of 0.0094. Finally, based on these forensic parameters, the likelihood ratios of four second-degree kinship cases were evaluated. Comparing with autosomal STR, X-STR showed significant advantages for hypothesis exclusion. Our study indicated that the 16 X-STR loci are highly polymorphic in the Han population of Beijing and could be a satisfactory complimentary tool for forensic applications.


X-STRs Genetic polymorphism Mutation rate Chinese Beijing Han population Kinship testing 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no completing interests.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019
corrected publication 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of GenomicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Beijing Police CollegeBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Beijing Tongda Shoucheng Institute of Forensic ScienceBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.School of Forensic MedicineShanxi Medical UniversityTaiyuanPeople’s Republic of China

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