Advertisement

3D analysis of computed tomography (CT)–derived lumbar spine models for the estimation of sex

  • Summer J. DeckerEmail author
  • Robert Foley
  • Joshua M. Hazelton
  • Jonathan M. Ford
Original Article

Abstract

When skeletal remains are found scattered or in fragmentary conditions, the establishment of a biological profile of unknown individuals can be proven difficult. Consequently, multiple methods to ascertain the sex of the individual must be developed. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that computed tomographic (CT)–derived 3D models of lumbar vertebrae could capture the unique morphologies of all five lumbar vertebrae to create equations for sex identification. The models were selected from a modern population consisting of 154 males and females that measured 30 standard linear measurements, the vertebral body wedging angle, and five aspect ratios. These measurements were then used to develop discriminant function equations for sex identification. Each lumbar level was analyzed individually as well as part of the entire lumbar spinal column. The results of this study showed that L1–L5 vertebrae can be used in sex determination with an 81.2–85.1% accuracy. When all five vertebrae are used in conjunction, the accuracy is 92.2%. The accuracy of the sex estimation found in this study for all lumbar vertebrae reinforces the distinct dimorphism between sexes while also providing forensic practitioners with more options or tools for their analyses.

Keywords

Forensic Identification 3D modeling Sex estimation 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Iscan MY, Steyn M (2013) The human skeleton in forensic medicine. Charles C Thomas Publisher, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haas J, Buikstra JE, Ubelaker DH, Aftandilian D, History FMN, Survey AA (1994) Standards for data collection from human skeletal remains: proceedings of a seminar at the field museum of natural history, organized by Jonathan Haas. Arkansas Archeological Survey, FayettevilleGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brooks S, Suchey JM (1990) Skeletal age determination based on the os pubis: a comparison of the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks methods. Hum Evol 5:227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    France DL (1998) Observational and metric analysis of sex in the skeleton. In: Reichs KJ (ed) Forensic osteology: Advances in the identification of human remains, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, p 163–186Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Spradley MK, Jantz RL (2011) Sex estimation in forensic anthropology: skull versus postcranial elements. J Forensic Sci 56:289–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Byard RW, James RA, Gilbert JD (2002) Diagnostic problems associated with cadaveric trauma from animal activity. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 23:238–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crainic K, Paraire F, Leterreux M, Durigon M, De Mazancourt P (2002) Skeletal remains presumed submerged in water for three years identified using PCR-STR analysis. J Forensic Sci 47:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rutty GN, Robinson C, Morgan B, Black S, Adams C, Webster P (2009) Fimag: the United Kingdom disaster victim/forensic identification imaging system. J Forensic Sci 54:1438–1442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rutty GN, Robinson CE, BouHaidar R, Jeffery AJ, Morgan B (2007) The role of mobile computed tomography in mass fatality incidents. J Forensic Sci 52:1343–1349Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Holland TD (1986) Sex determination of fragmentary crania by analysis of the cranial base. Am J Phys Anthropol 70:203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kelley MA (1979) Sex determination with fragmented skeletal remains. J Forensic Sci 24:154–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frutos LR (2005) Metric determination of sex from the humerus in a Guatemalan forensic sample. Forensic Sci Int 147:153–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    İşcan MY, Loth SR, King CA, Shihai D, Yoshino M (1998) Sexual dimorphism in the humerus: a comparative analysis of Chinese, Japanese and Thais. Forensic Sci Int 98:17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    İşcan MY, Shihai D (1995) Sexual dimorphism in the Chinese femur. Forensic Sci Int 74:79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Özer I, Katayama K, Sahgir M, Güleç E (2006) Sex determination using the scapula in medieval skeletons from East Anatolia. Coll Antropol 30:415–419Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Özer Ý, Katayama K (2008) Sex determination using the femur in an ancient Japanese population. Coll Antropol 32:67–72Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Falsetti AB (1995) Sex assessment from metacarpals of the human hand. J Forensic Sci 40:774–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gualdi-Russo E (2007) Sex determination from the talus and calcaneus measurements. Forensic Sci Int 171:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rogers TL (1999) A visual method of determining the sex of skeletal remains using the distal humerus. J Forensic Sci 44:57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rogers TL (2009) Sex determination of adolescent skeletons using the distal humerus. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rösing FW, Graw M, Marré B et al (2007) Recommendations for the forensic diagnosis of sex and age from skeletons. HOMO-J Comparative Human Biol 58:75–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Garn SM (1970) The earlier gain and the later loss of cortical bone, in nutritional perspective. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seeman E (2001) Sexual dimorphism in skeletal size, density, and strength. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4576–4584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Allbright AS (2007) Sexual dimorphism in the vertebral column.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marino EA (1995) Sex estimation using the first cervical vertebra. Am J Phys Anthropol 97:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wescott DJ (2000) Sex variation in the second cervical vertebra. J Forensic Sci 45:462–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yu SB, Lee UY, Kwak DS et al (2008) Determination of sex for the 12th thoracic vertebra by morphometry of three-dimensional reconstructed vertebral models. J Forensic Sci 53:620–625.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2008.00701.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zheng WX, Cheng FB, Cheng KL et al (2012) Sex assessment using measurements of the first lumbar vertebra. Forensic Sci Int 219(285):e1–e5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.11.022 Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ostrofsky KR, Churchill SE (2015) Sex determination by discriminant function analysis of lumbar vertebrae. J Forensic Sci 60:21–28.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.12543 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Frykberg ER (2002) Medical management of disasters and mass casualties from terrorist bombings: how can we cope? J Trauma Acute Care Surg 53:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hay O, Dar G, Abbas J et al (2015) The lumbar lordosis in males and females, revisited. PloS one 10:e0133685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bailey JF, Sparrey CJ, Been E, Kramer PA (2016) Morphological and postural sexual dimorphism of the lumbar spine facilitates greater lordosis in females. J Anat 229:82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ramsthaler F, Kettner M, Gehl A, Verhoff M (2010) Digital forensic osteology: morphological sexing of skeletal remains using volume-rendered cranial CT scans. Forensic Sci Int 195:148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Decker SJ, Davy-Jow SL, Ford JM, Hilbelink DR (2011) Virtual determination of sex: metric and nonmetric traits of the adult pelvis from 3D computed tomography models. J Forensic Sci 56:1107–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Uysal S, Gokharman D, Kacar M, Tuncbilek I, Kosar U (2005) Estimation of sex by 3D CT measurements of the foramen magnum. J Forensic Sci 50:JFS2005058–JFS2005055Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Inamori-Kawamoto O, Ishikawa T, Michiue T et al (2016) Possible application of CT morphometry of the calcaneus and talus in forensic anthropological identification. Int J Legal Med 130:575–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Djorojevic M, Roldán C, García-Parra P, Alemán I, Botella M (2014) Morphometric sex estimation from 3D computed tomography os coxae model and its validation in skeletal remains. Int J Legal Med 128:879–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Reid A, Schneider-Kolsky ME, O’Donnell CJ (2008) Comparison of computed radiography and multi-detector computed tomography in the detection of post mortem metacarpal index. Forensic Sci Int 177:192–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ford JM, Decker SJ (2016) Computed tomography slice thickness and its effects on three-dimensional reconstruction of anatomical structures. J Forensic Radiol Imaging 4:43–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Verhoff MA, Ramsthaler F, Krähahn J et al (2007) Digital forensic osteology. Forensic Sci Int 169:S47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ekizoglu O, Inci E, Erdil I et al (2016) Computed tomography evaluation of the iliac crest apophysis: age estimation in living individuals. Int J Legal Med 130:1101–1107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Wang Z, Ross R (2000) Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18–88 yr. J Appl Physiol 89:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of South Florida Morsani College of MedicineTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations