BioAlder: a tool for assessing chronological age based on two radiological methods
- 263 Downloads
We have created the tool BioAlder as an age prediction model based on the systems Greulich and Pyle (hand) and the Demirjian’s grading of the third molar tooth. The model compiles information from studies representing a total of 17,151 individuals from several parts of the world. The model offers a solution where issues as group-wise data format and age mimicry bias are bypassed. The model also provides a solution for combining the two grading systems, hand and tooth, to one combined age prediction result assuming independency. We have tested our model of age prediction and the independency assumption on a separate data set from Lebanon with 254 young individuals. The prediction intervals of BioAlder covered most of the data points; however, we observed some outliers. Our analyses indicate at least a weak dependency between the two methods.
KeywordsAge estimation Demirjian’s Greulich and Pyle Conditional dependency
We thank Jayakumar Jayaraman, Simon Camilleri, Rick R. van Rijn, Eugénia Cunha, Abdul Mueed Zafar, Bernhard Knell, and Ivan Galić for providing data, and Thore Egeland and Torbjørn Wisløff for useful discussions. We also want to thank the reviewers for their useful comments.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.European Asylum Support Office (2018) EASO. Age assessment practice in Europe. LuxemburgGoogle Scholar
- 2.Kreitner KF, Schweden F, Schild HH, Riepert T, Nafe B (1997) Computerized tomography of the epiphyseal union of the medial clavicle: an auxiliary method of age determination during adolescence and the 3d decade of life? RoFo: Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Rontgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin 166(6):481–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 3.Pyle SI, Hoerr NL (1955) Radiographic atlas of skeletal development of the knee: a standard of reference: ThomasGoogle Scholar
- 4.Greulich W, Pyle S (1959) Radiograph atlas of skeletal development of the hand and wrist, 2nd edn. Stanford University Press, StanfordGoogle Scholar
- 7.Dahlberg P, Mosdøl A, Ding KY, Bleka Ø, Rolseth V, Straumann GH et al (2017) Agreement between chronological age and bone age based on the Greulich & Pyle-atlas for age estimation: a systematic review. Folkehelseinstituttet, OsloGoogle Scholar
- 8.Rolseth V, Mosdøl A, Dahlberg PS, Ding KY, Bleka Ø, Skjerven-Martinsen M et al (2017) Demirjian’s development stages on wisdom teeth for estimation of chronological age: a systematic review. Folkehelseinstituttet, OsloGoogle Scholar
- 9.Boldsen JL, Milner GR, Konigsberg LW, Wood JW (2002) Transition analysis: a new method for estimating age from skeletons. Cambridge studies in biological and evolutionary anthropology :73–106Google Scholar
- 14.Bleka Ø, Wisløff T, Dahlberg PS et al (2018) Advancing estimation of chronological age by utilizing available evidence based on two radiographical methods. Int J Legal Med. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-018-1848-y
- 16.Santos C, Ferreira M, Alves FC, Cunha E (2011) Comparative study of Greulich and Pyle Atlas and Maturos 4.0 program for age estimation in a Portuguese sample. Forensic Sci Int 212(1–3):276.e1–276.e7Google Scholar
- 24.Chiang KH, Chou ASB, Yen PS, Ling CM, Lin CC, Lee CC et al (2005) The reliability of using Greulich-Pyle method to determine children’s bone age in Taiwan. Tzu Chi Medical Journal 17(6):417–420 +53Google Scholar
- 25.Griffith JF, Cheng JCY, Wong E (2007) Are western skeletal age standards applicable to the Hong Kong Chinese population? A comparison of the Greulich and Pyle method and the tanner and whitehouse method. Hong Kong Medical Journal 13(3 Supplement 3):28–32Google Scholar
- 28.Nahid G, Abdorrahim A, Gharib SM, Anvar E (2010) Assessment of bone age in Kurdish children in Iran. Pak J Med Sci 26(1):36–39Google Scholar
- 39.Bleka Ø, Dahlberg PS, Rolseth V, Bachs L BioAlder Manual Version 1.1 Available from: https://oslo-universitetssykehus.no/Documents/BioAlderManual_v1.1English.pdf
- 40.Yee TW (2010) The VGAM Package for categorical data analysis. J Stat Softw 1(10 (2010))Google Scholar
- 41.Yee TW VGAM: vector generalized linear and additive models 2017. Available from: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=VGAM
- 49.UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Guidelines on International Protection No. 8: Child Asylum Claims under Articles 1(A)2 and 1(F) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees [updated 22 December 2009. HCR/GIP/09/8]. Available from: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b2f4f6d2.html