International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 133, Issue 2, pp 529–538 | Cite as

The impact of sex and myocardial ischemic preconditioning on immunohistochemical markers of acute myocardial infarction

  • K. Scholl
  • R. Huhn
  • St. Ritz-Timme
  • F. MayerEmail author
Original Article


The immunohistochemical detection of dityrosine, troponins I (cTNI) and T (cTnT), and connexin 43 has been proposed as a tool for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction with short survival times. Results of clinical and experimental studies reveal that gender and/or ischemic preconditioning of the heart may have an influence on severity and magnitude of myocardial infarction. To clarify the question, if the above-mentioned markers are influenced by sex or ischemic preconditioning, experiments on isolated rat hearts using the Langendorff technique were performed. Using the hearts of 12 male and 12 female Wistar rats a local ischemia was induced through ligation of the left coronary artery. Furthermore, 12 male rat hearts underwent ischemic preconditioning of the heart by stopping the perfusion of the whole heart for 30 min and subsequently reperfusing the heart for another 60 min, before inducing local ischemia. The perfusion time after ligation varied from 10 to 60 min. A control group was comprised out of 6 male and 2 female rat hearts. These were placed in the Langendorff system for 60 min without further manipulation or received ischemic preconditioning without subsequent local ischemia or were excised without being mounted on the Langendorff system at all. All hearts were fixed in formalin and stained immunohistochemically. Depletion of the marker cTnT appeared to be less in females when compared to male hearts, for all other markers tested, no apparent difference in staining results were seen when comparing male and female rat hearts. Male rat hearts with ischemic preconditioning showed no difference compared to male rat hearts without ischemic preconditioning when stained fort dityrosine. Connexin 43 staining was less pronounced in hearts with ischemic preconditioning, whereas cTnI as well as cTnT depletion was more pronounced in preconditioned hearts. The presented findings indicate to some extent the vulnerability of the investigated markers for the influencing factors tested.


Myocardial infarction Sex Ischemic preconditioning Immunohistochemistry Animal model 


Compliance with ethical standards

The experiments in this study were conducted in accordance with the German legislation on protection of animals and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85-23, revised 1996). The protocol for the Langendorff experiments was approved by the local Animal Ethics Committee (Project No. O 27/11).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Legal MedicineUniversity Hospital DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Hospital EmmentalLangnau i.E.Switzerland
  3. 3.Department of AnaesthesiologyUniversity Hospital DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany

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