Genetic characterization of 32 X-InDels in a population sample from São Paulo State (Brazil)

  • Juliana MartinezEmail author
  • Fernanda Silva Polverari
  • Flávia Alves de Jesus Silva
  • Danilo Faustino Braganholi
  • Joyce Aparecida Martins Lopes Ferraz
  • Leonor Gusmão
  • Regina Maria Barretto Cicarelli
Population Data


X-chromosomal markers can be useful in some forensic cases, where the analysis of the autosomal markers is not conclusive. In this study, a population sample of 500 unrelated individuals born in São Paulo State was characterized for 32 X-InDel markers. No deviations from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were detected, except for MID1361. The 32 X-InDels showed an accumulated power of discrimination of 0.9999999999993 in females and 0.99999993 in males and an exclusion chance of 0.999996 in trios and 0.99995 in duos. São Paulo showed lower genetic distances to the Colombian admixed and European populations than to Native American, Asian, or African populations. Ancestry analysis revealed 41.8% European, 31.6% African, and 26.6% Native American contributions. Segregation analysis was performed in 101 trios, and the mutation rate was estimated to be low.


Forensic genetics Human identification Kinship testing Insertion/deletion polymorphism X chromosome 


Supplementary material

414_2018_1988_MOESM1_ESM.docx (399 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 399 kb)
414_2018_1988_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (97 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 97 kb)
414_2018_1988_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
ESM 3 (XLSX 13 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juliana Martinez
    • 1
    Email author return OK on get
  • Fernanda Silva Polverari
    • 1
  • Flávia Alves de Jesus Silva
    • 1
  • Danilo Faustino Braganholi
    • 1
  • Joyce Aparecida Martins Lopes Ferraz
    • 2
  • Leonor Gusmão
    • 3
  • Regina Maria Barretto Cicarelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Paternity Investigation, School of Pharmaceutical SciencesSão Paulo State University (UNESP)São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Research Centre for Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyMedical School of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP)São PauloBrazil
  3. 3.DNA Diagnostic Laboratory (LDD)State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil

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