24 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypic structure for Chinese Kazak ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other groups
- 403 Downloads
The Kazak ethnic minority is a large ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and is valuable resource for the study of ethnogeny. In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 201 unrelated Kazak male individuals from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Kazak group ranged from 0.0050 to 0.9104. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 113 different haplotypes were obtained, 96 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Kazak group were 0.9578 and 0.5622 at 24 STR loci, respectively. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity at Y-filer 17 loci, extended 11 loci, and minimal 9 loci were reduced to 0.9274 and 0.4279, 0.8459 and 0.3284, and 0.8354 and 0.2985, respectively, which could indicate that the more loci were detected, the higher forensic efficacy was obtained. We evaluated the application value of the 24 loci in forensic sciences and analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Kazak1 (represent our samples from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture) group and other 14 groups. The results of pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that the Kazak1 group had the closer genetic relationships with Kazak2 (represent samples from the whole territory of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region), Mongolian, and Uygur ethnic groups. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationships between Kazak1 and other groups.
KeywordsGenetic polymorphisms Y-STR Kazak ethnic group Haplotypic structure
This project was supported by the Program for Novel Century Excellent Talents of the Ministry of Education, China (NCET-13-0989), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 81525015, 81460286), and the Scientific Research Program of the Higher Education Institution of Xinjiang (FSRPHEXJ, No. XJEDU2011i33).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors state that they have no conflicts of interest.
- 1.Jin L, Chu YJ (2006) Genetic diversity of the Chinese nation. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
- 2.Skaletsky H, Kuroda-Kawaguchi T, Minx PJ, Cordum HS, Hillier L, Brown LG, Repping S, Pyntikova T, Ali J, Bieri T, Chinwalla A, Delehaunty A, Delehaunty K, Du H, Fewell G, Fulton L, Fulton R, Graves T, Hou SF, Latrielle P, Leonard S, Mardis E, Maupin R, McPherson J, Miner T, Nash W, Nguyen C, Ozersky P, Pepin K, Rock S, Rohlfing T, Scott K, Schultz B, Strong C, Tin-Wollam A, Yang SP, Waterston RH, Wilson RK, Rozen S, Page DC (2003) The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes. Nature 423:825–837CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 3.Zhu BF, Zhang YD, Liu WJ, Meng HT, Yuan GL, Lv Z, Dong N, Li Q, Yang CH, Zhang YH, Hou YL, Qian L, Fan SL, Xu P (2014) Genetic diversity and haplotype structure of 24 Y-chromosomal STR in Chinese Hui ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other populations. Electrophoresis 35:1993–2000CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Roewer L, Willuweit S, Krüger C, Nagy M, Rychkov S, Morozowa I, Naumova O, Schneider Y, Zhukova O, Stoneking M, Nasidze I (2008) Analysis of Y chromosome STR haplotypes in the European part of Russia reveals high diversities but non-significant genetic distances between populations. Int J Legal Med 3:219–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar