International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 125, Issue 6, pp 817–824

Y-STR DNA analysis of 154 female child sexual assault cases in the Philippines

  • Sheena Marie B. Maiquilla
  • Jazelyn M. Salvador
  • Gayvelline C. Calacal
  • Minerva S. Sagum
  • Miriam Ruth M. Dalet
  • Frederick C. Delfin
  • Kristina A. Tabbada
  • Shiela Ann Edith L. Franco
  • Henry B. Perdigon
  • Bernadette J. Madrid
  • Merle P. Tan
  • Maria Corazon A. De Ungria
Original Article

Abstract

The laboratory evaluated 154 sexual assault cases from four Child Protection Units in the Philippines involving female child victims aged from 2 years to 18 years old. All child victims sought medical attention within 72 h after sexual contact. In 130 cases, the child victim knew the alleged offender and identified them during the interview with the social worker. Penile ejaculation was reported by 68 child victims with varying reports of washing after contact. Overall, 84 child victims admitted having wiped their genitalia prior to the collection of biological samples for DNA testing. Laboratory personnel examined vaginal smears in only 109 cases using a light microscope and reported 23 samples to be positive for sperm cells. Using the PowerPlex® short tandem repeat of the Y chromosome (Y-STR) DNA multiplex system, male DNA was detected in vaginal swab samples from 63 child victims. In 39 cases, positive amplification at 11 Y-STR DNA markers consistent with a single male DNA profile was observed. Twenty-eight of these full single Y-STR DNA profiles were found to be unique when searched in worldwide Y-STR DNA population databases (~40,000 haplotypes), eight haplotypes matching Filipinos and/or Asian haplotypes and one Y-STR DNA profile only matching European, Caucasian, and Latin American haplotypes. Y-STR DNA profiles generated will be compared with reference DNA profiles of alleged offenders once reference samples are submitted to the laboratory.

Keywords

Child sexual assault Vaginal swabs Y-STR DNA typing Female sexual abuse Child protection unit Philippines 

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization, Regional Office for South-East Asia (2009) Child sexual abuse and violence: violence prevention in South-East Asia. Available via internet. www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/Disability,_Injury_Prevention_&_Rehabilitation_child.pdf. Accessed 13 Mar 2009
  2. 2.
    Romulo RA, Balamban BB (2008) Statistics on violence against women and children: a morally rejuvenating Philippine society? National Statistical Coordination Board. Available via internet. http://www.nscb.gov.ph/headlines/StatsSpeak/2008/090808_rav_wedc.asp. Accessed 13 Oct 2010
  3. 3.
    Child Protection Network (2008) Annual report on cases handled by CPU from 2005–2007. Available via internet. http://www.childprotection.org.ph/factsfigures/index.html. Accessed 31 October 2010
  4. 4.
    De Ungria MCA, Calacal GC, Magno MMF, Delfin FC, Tabbada KA, Frani AM, Halos SC (2001) DNA evidence in Philippine courts: a case report. Philipp Law Gaz 13(3):46–49Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Ungria MCA, Sagum MS, Calacal GC, Delfin FC, Tabbada KA, Te DMRM, TO DJI, Diokno MSI, Asplen CA (2008) Forensic DNA evidence and the death penalty in the Philippines. Forensic Sci Int Genet 2:329–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Collins KA (1998) The laboratory’s role in detecting sexual assault. Lab Med 29(6):361–365Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Roewer L (2009) Y chromosome STR typing in crime casework. Forensic Sci Med Pathol 5:77–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kayser M, Caglia A, Corach D, Fretwell N, Gehrig C, Graziosi G, Heidron F, Herrmann S, Herzog B, Hidding M, Honda K, Jobling MA, Leim K, Meuser S, Meyer E, Oesterreich W, Pandya A, Parson W, Penacino G, Perez-Lezaun A, Piccinini A, Prinz M, Schmitt C, Schneider PM, Szibor R, Teifel-Greding J, Weichhold G, de Kniff P, Roewer L (1997) Evaluation of Y-chromosomal STRs: a multicenter study. Int J Leg Med 110:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    PowerPlex® Y database (2004). Available via internet. www.promega.com/techserv/tools/pplexy. Accessed 2008–2009
  10. 10.
    Yfiler database (2004). Available via internet. www.appliedbiosystems.com/yfilerdatabase. Accessed 2008–2009
  11. 11.
    Willuweit S and Roewer L (2007). YHRD (Y chromosome Haplotype Reference Database). Available via internet. www.yhrd.org/search%20Database/Search%20Haplotypes;;s. Accessed 2008–2009
  12. 12.
    Janisch S, Meyer H, Germerott T, Albrecht UV, Schulz Y, Debertin AS (2010) Analysis of clinical forensic examination reports on sexual assault. Int J Legal Med 124(3):227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Delfin FC, Madrid BJ, Tan MP, De Ungria MCA (2005) Y-STR DNA analysis for detection and objective confirmation of child sexual abuse. Int J Leg Med 119:158–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime Laboratory (1994) PCR-based typing protocols. United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maiquilla SMB, Salvador JM, De Ungria MCA (2008) Update: Philippine Y-STR DNA haplotype database at 11 Y-STR DNA markers’ DNA Analysis Laboratory Report, University of the Philippines Natural Sciences Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lessig R, Willuweit S, Krawczak M, Wu FC, Pu CE, Kim W, Henke L, Henke J, Miranda J, Hidding M, Benecke M, Schmitt C, Magno M, Calacal G, Delfin FC, de Ungria MC, Elias S, Augustin C, Tun Z, Honda K, Kayser M, Gusmao L, Amorim A, Alves C, Hou Y, Keyser C, Ludes B, Klintschar M, Immel UD, Reichenpfader B, Zaharova B, Roewer L (2003) Asian online Y-STR haplotype reference database. Leg Med (Tokyo) 5(Suppl):S160–S163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Halos SC, Chu JY, Ferreon ACM, Magno MMF (1999) Philippine population database at nine microsatellite loci for forensic and paternity applications. Forensic Sci Int 101:27–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Christian CW, Lavelle JM, De Jong AR, Loiselle J, Brenner L, Joffe M (2000) Forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. Pediatrics 106(1 Pt 1):100–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Grossin C, Sibille I, Lorin de la Grandmaison G, Banasr A, Brion F, Durigon M (2003) Analysis of 418 cases of sexual assault. Forensic Sci Int 131(2–3):125–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCall-Hosenfeld JS, Freund KM, Liebschutz JM (2009) Factors associated with sexual assault and time to presentation. Prev Med 48:593–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McGregor MJ, Du Mont J, Myhr TL (2002) Sexual assault forensic medical examination: is evidence related to successful prosecution? Ann Emerg Med 39(6):639–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Laraque D, Demattia A, Low C (2006) Forensic child abuse evaluation: a review. Mt Sinai J Med 73(8):1138–1147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Willott GM, Allard JE (1982) Spermatozoa—their persistence after sexual intercourse. Forensic Sci Int 19(2):135–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krenke BE, Viculis L, Richard ML, Prinz M, Milne SC, Ladd C, Gross AM, Gornall T, Frappier JR, Eisenberg AJ, Barna C, Aranda XG, Adamowicz MS, Budowle B (2005) Validation of a male-specific, 12-locus fluorescent short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex. Forensic Sci Int 148(1):1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheena Marie B. Maiquilla
    • 1
  • Jazelyn M. Salvador
    • 1
  • Gayvelline C. Calacal
    • 1
  • Minerva S. Sagum
    • 1
  • Miriam Ruth M. Dalet
    • 1
  • Frederick C. Delfin
    • 1
  • Kristina A. Tabbada
    • 1
  • Shiela Ann Edith L. Franco
    • 1
  • Henry B. Perdigon
    • 1
  • Bernadette J. Madrid
    • 3
    • 2
  • Merle P. Tan
    • 2
  • Maria Corazon A. De Ungria
    • 1
  1. 1.DNA Analysis Laboratory, Natural Sciences Research Institute, Miranda HallUniversity of the PhilippinesQuezonPhilippines
  2. 2.University of the Philippines Manila Child Protection UnitPhilippine General HospitalManilaPhilippines
  3. 3.Department of Pediatrics, College of MedicineUniversity of the PhilippinesManilaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations