International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 122, Issue 2, pp 173–177 | Cite as

Confocal laser scanning microscopy. Using new technology to answer old questions in forensic investigations

  • Emanuela Turillazzi
  • Steven B. Karch
  • Margherita Neri
  • Cristoforo Pomara
  • Irene Riezzo
  • Vittorio FineschiEmail author
Technical Note


Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a relatively new technique for microscopic imaging. It has found a wide field of application in the general sphere of biological sciences. It has completely changed the study of cells and tissues by allowing greater resolution, optical sectioning of the sample and three-dimensional sanoke reconstruction. Confocal microscopy represents a valid, precious and useful tool capable of providing data (images) of unrivalled clearness and definition. This review discusses the possible applications of confocal microscopy in specific fields of forensic investigation, with specific regard to ballistics, forensic histopathology and toxicological pathology.


Confocal laser scanning microscopy Forensic investigation Terminal ballistic Toxicologic pathology Sudden cardiac death Neonatal death 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emanuela Turillazzi
    • 1
  • Steven B. Karch
    • 2
  • Margherita Neri
    • 1
  • Cristoforo Pomara
    • 1
  • Irene Riezzo
    • 1
  • Vittorio Fineschi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Forensic PathologyUniversity of FoggiaFoggiaItaly
  2. 2.BerkeleyUSA

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