Advertisement

International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 122, Issue 2, pp 173–177 | Cite as

Confocal laser scanning microscopy. Using new technology to answer old questions in forensic investigations

  • Emanuela Turillazzi
  • Steven B. Karch
  • Margherita Neri
  • Cristoforo Pomara
  • Irene Riezzo
  • Vittorio FineschiEmail author
Technical Note

Abstract

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) is a relatively new technique for microscopic imaging. It has found a wide field of application in the general sphere of biological sciences. It has completely changed the study of cells and tissues by allowing greater resolution, optical sectioning of the sample and three-dimensional sanoke reconstruction. Confocal microscopy represents a valid, precious and useful tool capable of providing data (images) of unrivalled clearness and definition. This review discusses the possible applications of confocal microscopy in specific fields of forensic investigation, with specific regard to ballistics, forensic histopathology and toxicological pathology.

Keywords

Confocal laser scanning microscopy Forensic investigation Terminal ballistic Toxicologic pathology Sudden cardiac death Neonatal death 

References

  1. 1.
    Pawley JB (2006) The handbook of biological confocal microscopy, 3rd edn. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boyde A (1994) Bibliography on confocal microscopy and its applications. Scanning 16:33–56Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Madea B (2007) Case histories in forensic medicine. Forensic Sci Int 165:111–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ying X, Monticello TM (2006) Modern imaging technologies in toxicologic pathology: an overview. Toxicol Pathol 34:815–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lucitti JL, Dickinson ME (2006) Moving toward the light: using new technology to answer old questions. Pediatr Res 60:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wilson T, Sheppard CJR (1984) Theory and practice of scanning optical microscopy. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lichtman JW (1984) Confocal microscopy. Sci Am 271:40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    White JG, Amos WB, Fordham M (1987) An evaluation of confocal versus conventional imaging of biological structures by fluorescence light microscopy. J Cell Biol 105:41–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Minsky M (1988) Memoir on inventing the confocal scanning microscope. Scanning 10:128–138Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diaspro A (2001) Confocal and two-photon microscopy: foundations, applications, and advances. Wiley-Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Amos WB, White JG (2003) How the confocal laser scanning microscope entered biological research. Biol Cell 95:335–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Braet F, Ratinac K (2007) Creating next generation microscopists: structural and molecular biology at the crossroads. J Cell Mol Med 11:759–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Borg TK, Stewart JA Jr, Sutton MA (2005) Imaging the cardiovascular system: seeing is believing. Microsc Microanal 11:189–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wedekind H, Schulze-Bahr E, Debus V, Breithardt G, Brinkmann B, Bajanowski T (2007) Cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in infancy: implication for the medicolegal investigation. Int J Legal Med 121:245–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Neri M, Cerretani D, Fiaschi AI et al (2007) Correlation between cardiac oxidative stress and myocardial pathology due to acute and chronic norepinephrine administration in rats. J Cell Mol Med 11:156–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wedekind H, Bajanowski T, Friederich P et al (2006) Sudden infant death syndrome and long QT syndrome: an epidemiological and genetic study. Int J Legal Med 120:129–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Turillazzi E, Glatter KA, Neri M (2006) Sudden cardiac death and channelopathies. In: Fineschi V, Baroldi G, Silver MD (eds) Pathology of the heart and sudden death in forensic medicine. CRC Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 255–270Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pieske B, Houser SR, Hasenfuss G, Bers DM (2003) Sodium and the heart: a hidden key factor in cardiac regulation. Cardiovasc Res 57:871–872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Frustaci A, Priori SG, Pieroni M et al (2005) Cardiac histological substrate in patients with clinical phenotype of Brugada syndrome. Circulation 112:3680–3687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neri M, Turillazzi E, Riezzo I, Fineschi V (2007) The determination of firing distance applying a microscopic quantitative method and confocal laser scanning microscopy for detection of gunshot residue particles. Int J Legal Med 121:245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Raul JS, Deck C, Meyer F, Geraut A, Willinger R, Ludes B (2007) A finite element model investigation of gunshot injury. Int J Legal Med 121:143–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vennemann B, Grosse Perdekamp M, Kneubuehl BP, Serr A, Pollack S (2007) Gunshot - related displacement of skin particles and bacteria from the exit region back into the bullet path. Int J Legal Med 121:105–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blair E, Watson L (2006) Epidemiology of cerebral palsy. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 11:117–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Greenwood C, Newman S, Impey L, Johnson A (2003) Cerebral palsy and clinical negligence litigation: a cohort study. BJOG 110:6–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bracci R, Perrone S, Buonocore G (2006) The timing of neonatal brain damage. Biol Neonate 90:145–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hausmann R, Seidl S, Betz P (2007) Hypoxic changes in Purkinje cells of the human cerebellum. Int J Legal Med 121:175–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Oehmichen M (2006) Forensic neuropathology and neurology. Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Love S (2004) Acute haemorrhagic and hypoxic–ischaemic brain damage in the neonate. Curr Diagn Pathol 10:106–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pomara C, Fiore C, D’Errico S, Riezzo I, Fineschi V (2007) Calcium oxalate crystals in acute ethylene glycol poisoning: a confocal laser scanning microscope study in a fatal case. Clin Toxicol (in press). DOI  10.1111/j.1582-4934.2007.00072.x

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emanuela Turillazzi
    • 1
  • Steven B. Karch
    • 2
  • Margherita Neri
    • 1
  • Cristoforo Pomara
    • 1
  • Irene Riezzo
    • 1
  • Vittorio Fineschi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Forensic PathologyUniversity of FoggiaFoggiaItaly
  2. 2.BerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations