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International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 120, Issue 4, pp 201–211 | Cite as

The human brain and its neural stem cells postmortem: from dead brains to live therapy

  • Robert E. FeldmannJrEmail author
  • Rainer Mattern
Review Article

Abstract

Contrary to the traditional dogma of being a relatively invariable and quiescent organ lacking the capability to regenerate, there is now widespread evidence that the human brain harbors multipotent neural stem cells, possibly throughout senescence. These cells can divide and give rise to neuroectodermal progeny in vivo and are now regarded as powerful prospective candidates for repairing or enhancing the functional capability of neural tissue in trauma or diseases associated with degeneration or malperfusion. Hopes primarily rest upon techniques to either recruit endogenous stem cells or to utilize exogenous donor-derived material for transplantation. In the search for suitable human cell sources, embryonic, fetal, and adult stem cells appear highly controversial, as they are accompanied by various still-unresolved moral and legal challenges. Fascinatingly, however, recent reports indicate the successful isolation and expansion of viable neural stem cells from the rodent and human brain within a considerable postmortem interval, suggesting that postmortem neural stem cells could potentially become an acceptable alternative cellular resource. This article will provide a brief overview about neural stem cells, their prominent features, and prospects for a cellular therapy, and will furthermore illuminate the cells in particular with respect to their newly discovered postmortem provenience, their advantage as a potential cell source, and several unfolding forensic considerations. Also, important ethical, social, and legal implications arising from this hitherto unpracticed cellular harvest of brain tissue from the deceased are outlined.

Keywords

Neural stem cell Human brain Postmortem Therapeutic applications Ethical and legal requisites 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are indebted to W. Kuschinsky, Heidelberg, for critical comments on the manuscript; H. Marti, Heidelberg, for the fruitful discussions on hypoxic conditions and hypoxia-inducible factors in the brain; J. Taupitz, Mannheim, and C. Rittner, Mainz, for helping to unwind the complexity of related international legal practice; and F. Schueler, Heidelberg, for his helpful comments on in situ organ donation at accident sites.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Division of NeurobiologyThe Johns Hopkins University Medical Institutions, Children's Medical and Surgical Center (CMSC)BaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and PathophysiologyUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  3. 3.Department of Forensic Medicine and Traffic MedicineUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

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