International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 117, Issue 2, pp 121–126 | Cite as

Variation at 16 STR loci in Rwandans (Hutu) and implications on profile frequency estimation in Bantu-speakers

  • Sergio TofanelliEmail author
  • Ilaria Boschi
  • Stefania Bertoneri
  • Valentina Coia
  • Luca Taglioli
  • Marcello Giovanni Franceschi
  • Giovanni Destro-Bisol
  • Vincenzo Pascali
  • Giorgio Paoli
Short Communication


A data set of 16 autosomal STRs (the 13 CODIS loci plus HumCD4, HumFES, HumF13A1) was obtained in a sample of 52 unrelated Hutus from Rwanda. Genotypes at all loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations with the exception of HumCSF1PO. No significant evidence of association across alleles at independent loci was obtained. Statistical parameters demonstrated the forensic usefulness of the analysed systems (combined PE=0.9999996, combined PD=1:2.27×1018). Pairwise comparisons showed that the Hutu gene pool differs substantially from that of other Bantu-speaking populations suggesting the use of ethnic-specific population databases in forensic casework analysis. The introduction of a non-negligible bias was confirmed by calculating the differences between multiple-locus profile frequencies of western and eastern Bantoids using local and non-local reference databases.


STR-profiles Hutu Rwanda CODIS Bantu-speakers 



This research was supported by the MIUR COFIN 2001 grant. We are indebited to the Hutu donors, whose participation in the project made this research possible.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergio Tofanelli
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ilaria Boschi
    • 2
  • Stefania Bertoneri
    • 1
  • Valentina Coia
    • 3
  • Luca Taglioli
    • 1
  • Marcello Giovanni Franceschi
    • 1
  • Giovanni Destro-Bisol
    • 3
  • Vincenzo Pascali
    • 2
  • Giorgio Paoli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ethology, Ecology and Evolution, Anthropology UnitUniversity of Pisa PisaItaly
  2. 2.Forensic Haematology Laboratory, Institute of Legal MedicineSacro Cuore Catholic University (UCSC)RomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Animal and Human BiologyUniversity of Rome "La Sapienza"RomeItaly

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