Condensin: crafting the chromosome landscape
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The successful transmission of complete genomes from mother to daughter cells during cell divisions requires the structural re-organization of chromosomes into individualized and compact structures that can be segregated by mitotic spindle microtubules. Multi-subunit protein complexes named condensins play a central part in this chromosome condensation process, but the mechanisms behind their actions are still poorly understood. An increasing body of evidence suggests that, in addition to their role in shaping mitotic chromosomes, condensin complexes have also important functions in directing the three-dimensional arrangement of chromatin fibers within the interphase nucleus. To fulfill their different functions in genome organization, the activity of condensin complexes and their localization on chromosomes need to be strictly controlled. In this review article, we outline the regulation of condensin function by phosphorylation and other posttranslational modifications at different stages of the cell cycle. We furthermore discuss how these regulatory mechanisms are used to control condensin binding to specific chromosome domains and present a comprehensive overview of condensin’s interaction partners in these processes.
KeywordsChromosome condensation Mitosis Segregation Phosphorylation Nucleosome
Work in the Haering laboratory is supported by EMBL and the German Research Foundation (DFG).
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