Inversions of chromosome arms 4AL and 2BS in wheat invert the patterns of chiasma distribution
In many species, including wheat, crossing over is distal, and the proximal regions of chromosome arms contribute little to genetic maps. This was thought to be a consequence of terminal initiation of synapsis favoring distal crossing over. However, in an inverted rye chromosome arm, the pattern of metaphase I chiasmata was also inverted, suggesting that crossover frequencies were specific to chromosome segments. Here, wheat chromosome arms 2BS and 4AL, with essentially entire arms inverted in reverse tandem duplications (rtd), were studied in the MI of meiosis. Inversion–duplication placed the recombining segments in the middle of the arms. While the overall pairing frequencies of the inverted–duplicated arms were considerably reduced relative to normal arms, chiasmata, if present, were always located in the same regions as in structurally normal arms, and relative chiasma frequencies remained the same. The frequencies of fragment or fragment + bridge configurations in AI and AII indicated that of the two tandemly arranged copies of segments in rtds, the more distal inverted segments were more likely to cross over than the segments in their original orientations. These observations show that also in wheat, relative crossover frequencies along chromosome arms are predetermined and independent of the segment location. The segments normally not licensed to cross over do not do so even when placed in seemingly most favorable positions for it.
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