H2AX: functional roles and potential applications
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Upon DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction in mammals, the histone H2A variant, H2AX, becomes rapidly phosphorylated at serine 139. This modified form, termed γ-H2AX, is easily identified with antibodies and serves as a sensitive indicator of DNA DSB formation. This review focuses on the potential clinical applications of γ-H2AX detection in cancer and in response to other cellular stresses. In addition, the role of H2AX in homeostasis and disease will be discussed. Recent work indicates that γ-H2AX detection may become a powerful tool for monitoring genotoxic events associated with cancer development and tumor progression.
KeywordsIonize Radiation Fanconi Anemia Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutate H2AX Phosphorylation Radiation Induce Bystander Effect
This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute, NIH. We would like to thank Dr. Kurt Kohn for assistance with the design of the Molecular Interaction Map.
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