Three systems of monoallelic gene expression in mammals are known, namely, X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting, and allelic exclusion. In all three systems, monoallelic expression is regulated epigenetically and is frequently directed by long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This review briefs all three systems of monoallelic gene expression in mammals focusing on chromatin modifications, spatial chromosome organization in the nucleus, and the functioning of ncRNAs.
KeywordsImprint Gene H3K27 Trimethylation Monoallelic Expression Xist Gene Inactive Chromatin
We thank Prof. L.V. Vysotskaya (Novosibirsk State University, Russia) and Prof. E.S. Belyaeva (Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Department, Novosibirsk, Russia) for helpful comments and discussion. We are grateful to Claire Senner for valuable comments and suggestions. The work was funded by grant no. 08-04-00346 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.
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