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Chromosoma

, Volume 113, Issue 3, pp 103–112 | Cite as

The mammalian circadian timing system: from gene expression to physiology

  • Frédéric Gachon
  • Emi Nagoshi
  • Steven A. Brown
  • Juergen Ripperger
  • Ueli SchiblerEmail author
Review

Abstract

Many physiological processes in organisms from bacteria to man are rhythmic, and some of these are controlled by self-sustained oscillators that persist in the absence of external time cues. Circadian clocks are perhaps the best characterized biological oscillators and they exist in virtually all light-sensitive organisms. In mammals, they influence nearly all aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep-wake cycles, cardiovascular activity, endocrinology, body temperature, renal activity, physiology of the gastro-intestinal tract, and hepatic metabolism. The master pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, two small groups of neurons in the ventral part of the hypothalamus. However, most peripheral body cells contain self-sustained circadian oscillators with a molecular makeup similar to that of SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) neurons. This organization implies that the SCN must synchronize countless subsidiary oscillators in peripheral tissues, in order to coordinate cyclic physiology. In this review, we will discuss some recent studies on the structure and putative functions of the mammalian circadian timing system, but we will also point out some apparent inconsistencies in the currently publicized model for rhythm generation.

Keywords

Circadian Clock Clock Gene Period Length Circadian Oscillator Peripheral Clock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Nicolas Roggli for the artwork. Research from our own laboratory discussed in this review has been supported by Swiss National Science Foundation (grant to U.S.), the State of Geneva, the NCCR program “Frontiers in Genetics,” the Bonnizzi Theler Stiftung, and the Louis Jeantet Foundation of Medicine. F.G. received a postdoctoral fellowship from the Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale (France).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frédéric Gachon
    • 1
  • Emi Nagoshi
    • 1
  • Steven A. Brown
    • 1
  • Juergen Ripperger
    • 1
  • Ueli Schibler
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Biology, Sciences IIIUniversity of GenevaGeneva-4Switzerland

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