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Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 47–54 | Cite as

Internal exposure to neutron-activated 56Mn dioxide powder in Wistar rats: part 1: dosimetry

  • Valeriy Stepanenko
  • Tolebay Rakhypbekov
  • Keiko Otani
  • Satoru Endo
  • Kenichi Satoh
  • Noriyuki Kawano
  • Kazuko Shichijo
  • Masahiro Nakashima
  • Toshihiro Takatsuji
  • Aya Sakaguchi
  • Hiroaki Kato
  • Yuichi Onda
  • Nariaki Fujimoto
  • Shin Toyoda
  • Hitoshi Sato
  • Altay Dyussupov
  • Nailya Chaizhunusova
  • Nurlan Sayakenov
  • Darkhan Uzbekov
  • Aisulu Saimova
  • Dariya Shabdarbaeva
  • Mazhin Skakov
  • Alexandr Vurim
  • Vyacheslav Gnyrya
  • Almas Azimkhanov
  • Alexander Kolbayenkov
  • Kasym Zhumadilov
  • Yankar Kairikhanova
  • Andrey Kaprin
  • Vsevolod Galkin
  • Sergey Ivanov
  • Timofey Kolyzhenkov
  • Aleksey Petukhov
  • Elena Yaskova
  • Irina Belukha
  • Artem Khailov
  • Valeriy Skvortsov
  • Alexander Ivannikov
  • Umukusum Akhmedova
  • Viktoria Bogacheva
  • Masaharu Hoshi
Original Article

Abstract

There were two sources of ionizing irradiation after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: (1) initial gamma-neutron irradiation at the moment of detonation and (2) residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity consisted of two components: radioactive fallout containing fission products, including radioactive fissile materials from nuclear device, and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground. The dosimetry systems DS86 and DS02 were mainly devoted to the assessment of initial radiation exposure to neutrons and gamma rays, while only brief considerations were given for the estimation of doses caused by residual radiation exposure. Currently, estimation of internal exposure of atomic bomb survivors due to dispersed radioactivity and neutron-activated radioisotopes from materials on the ground is a matter of some interest, in Japan. The main neutron-activated radionuclides in soil dust were 24Na, 28Al, 31Si, 32P, 38Cl, 42K, 45Ca, 46Sc, 56Mn, 59Fe, 60Co, and 134Cs. The radionuclide 56Mn (T 1/2 = 2.58 h) is known as one of the dominant beta- and gamma emitters during the first few hours after neutron irradiation of soil and other materials on ground, dispersed in the form of dust after a nuclear explosion in the atmosphere. To investigate the peculiarities of biological effects of internal exposure to 56Mn in comparison with external gamma irradiation, a dedicated experiment with Wistar rats exposed to neutron-activated 56Mn dioxide powder was performed recently by Shichijo and coworkers. The dosimetry required for this experiment is described here. Assessment of internal radiation doses was performed on the basis of measured 56Mn activity in the organs and tissues of the rats and of absorbed fractions of internal exposure to photons and electrons calculated with the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo using a mathematical rat phantom. The first results of this international multicenter study show that the internal irradiation due to incorporated 56Mn powder is highly inhomogeneous, and that the most irradiated organs of the experimental animals are: large intestine, small intestine, stomach, and lungs. Accumulated absorbed organ doses were 1.65, 1.33, 0.24, 0.10 Gy for large intestine, small intestine, stomach, and lungs, respectively. Other organs were irradiated at lower dose levels. These results will be useful for interpretation of the biological effects of internal exposure of experimental rats to powdered 56Mn as observed by Shichijo and coworkers.

Keywords

Neutron activation Radioactive dust Experimental rats Monte Carlo simulation 56Mn Internal dosimetry 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grants Numbers 26257501 (April 2014–March 2018) and 24310044 (April 2012–March 2015), Japan. This research was financially supported by Semey State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Part of this research was supported by A. Tsyb Medical Radiological Research Center (MRRC)—National Medical Research Radiological Center, Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, by providing equipment for calibration and measurements. The authors thank Dr. Stepen Egbert, Leidos Inc., San Diego, California, United States, for very useful discussions, comments, and for editing the draft of this paper.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of this paper have no conflicts of interest according to their disclosure forms.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valeriy Stepanenko
    • 1
  • Tolebay Rakhypbekov
    • 2
  • Keiko Otani
    • 3
  • Satoru Endo
    • 3
  • Kenichi Satoh
    • 3
  • Noriyuki Kawano
    • 3
  • Kazuko Shichijo
    • 4
  • Masahiro Nakashima
    • 4
  • Toshihiro Takatsuji
    • 4
  • Aya Sakaguchi
    • 5
  • Hiroaki Kato
    • 5
  • Yuichi Onda
    • 5
  • Nariaki Fujimoto
    • 3
  • Shin Toyoda
    • 6
  • Hitoshi Sato
    • 7
  • Altay Dyussupov
    • 2
  • Nailya Chaizhunusova
    • 2
  • Nurlan Sayakenov
    • 2
  • Darkhan Uzbekov
    • 2
  • Aisulu Saimova
    • 2
  • Dariya Shabdarbaeva
    • 2
  • Mazhin Skakov
    • 8
  • Alexandr Vurim
    • 8
  • Vyacheslav Gnyrya
    • 8
  • Almas Azimkhanov
    • 8
  • Alexander Kolbayenkov
    • 8
  • Kasym Zhumadilov
    • 9
  • Yankar Kairikhanova
    • 2
  • Andrey Kaprin
    • 1
  • Vsevolod Galkin
    • 1
  • Sergey Ivanov
    • 1
  • Timofey Kolyzhenkov
    • 1
  • Aleksey Petukhov
    • 1
  • Elena Yaskova
    • 1
  • Irina Belukha
    • 1
  • Artem Khailov
    • 1
  • Valeriy Skvortsov
    • 1
  • Alexander Ivannikov
    • 1
  • Umukusum Akhmedova
    • 1
  • Viktoria Bogacheva
    • 1
  • Masaharu Hoshi
    • 3
  1. 1.Medical Radiological Research Center (MRRC) named after A.F. Tsyb – National Medical Research Radiological Center of the Health Ministry of the Russian FederationObninskRussian Federation
  2. 2.Semey State Medical UniversitySemeyRepublic of Kazakhstan
  3. 3.Hiroshima UniversityHiroshimaJapan
  4. 4.Nagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan
  5. 5.University of TsukubaIbarakiJapan
  6. 6.Okayama University of ScienceOkayamaJapan
  7. 7.Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health ScienceIbarakiJapan
  8. 8.National Nuclear Center of the Republic of KazakhstanKurchatovRepublic of Kazakhstan
  9. 9.Eurasian National University named after L.N. GumilyovAstanaRepublic of Kazakhstan

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