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Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 39–54 | Cite as

Predicted cancer risks induced by computed tomography examinations during childhood, by a quantitative risk assessment approach

  • Neige Journy
  • Sophie Ancelet
  • Jean-Luc Rehel
  • Myriam Mezzarobba
  • Bernard Aubert
  • Dominique Laurier
  • Marie-Odile Bernier
Original Paper

Abstract

The potential adverse effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation from computed tomography (CT) in pediatrics must be characterized in relation to their expected clinical benefits. Additional epidemiological data are, however, still awaited for providing a lifelong overview of potential cancer risks. This paper gives predictions of potential lifetime risks of cancer incidence that would be induced by CT examinations during childhood in French routine practices in pediatrics. Organ doses were estimated from standard radiological protocols in 15 hospitals. Excess risks of leukemia, brain/central nervous system, breast and thyroid cancers were predicted from dose–response models estimated in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors’ dataset and studies of medical exposures. Uncertainty in predictions was quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. This approach predicts that 100,000 skull/brain scans in 5-year-old children would result in eight (90 % uncertainty interval (UI) 1–55) brain/CNS cancers and four (90 % UI 1–14) cases of leukemia and that 100,000 chest scans would lead to 31 (90 % UI 9–101) thyroid cancers, 55 (90 % UI 20–158) breast cancers, and one (90 % UI <0.1–4) leukemia case (all in excess of risks without exposure). Compared to background risks, radiation-induced risks would be low for individuals throughout life, but relative risks would be highest in the first decades of life. Heterogeneity in the radiological protocols across the hospitals implies that 5–10 % of CT examinations would be related to risks 1.4–3.6 times higher than those for the median doses. Overall excess relative risks in exposed populations would be 1–10 % depending on the site of cancer and the duration of follow-up. The results emphasize the potential risks of cancer specifically from standard CT examinations in pediatrics and underline the necessity of optimization of radiological protocols.

Keywords

Ionizing radiation Low doses Computed tomography Pediatric Cancer Quantitative risk assessment Uncertainty analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are particularly grateful to the radiologists working in the participating hospitals (France) who provided us with information about the radiological protocols used in their department: Pr N Boutry (CHU de Lille), Pr F Brunelle (CHU Necker-Enfants-Malades–Paris), Pr JF Chateil (CHU Pellegrin–Bordeaux), Pr E Dion (CHU Louis Mourier – Colombes), Pr H Ducou Le Pointe (CHU Armand Trousseau – Paris), Dr S Franchi (CHU de Bicêtre), Dr MF Galloy (CHU de Nancy), Pr JM Garcier and Dr J Guersen (CHU de Clermont-Ferrand), Pr G Khalifa (CHU Saint-Vincent de Paul – Paris), Dr D Loisel (CHU d’Angers), Pr D Musset (CHU Antoine Béclère – Clamart), Pr D Pariente (CHU de Bicêtre), Pr P Petit (CHU de Marseille), Dr E Schmitt (CHU de Nancy), Pr G Sebag (CHU Robert Debré – Paris), Pr D Sirinelli (CHU Clocheville – Tours), Dr J Vial (CHU de Toulouse). We also thank Olivier Laurent (IRSN, France) very much for helpful discussions on methods at early stages of the work. This report makes use of data obtained from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Hiroshima, Japan. RERF is a private foundation funded equally by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare and the US Department of Energy through the US National Academy of Sciences. The data include information obtained from the Hiroshima City, Hiroshima Prefecture, Nagasaki City, and Nagasaki Prefecture Tumor Registries and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Tissue Registries. The conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the scientific judgment of RERF or its funding agencies. This work was funded by La Ligue contre le cancer (PRE09/MOB) and the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) (2011-1-PL-SHS-01-IRSN-1).

Supplementary material

411_2013_491_MOESM1_ESM.doc (301 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 238 kb)
411_2013_491_MOESM2_ESM.xls (36 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLS 36 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neige Journy
    • 1
  • Sophie Ancelet
    • 1
  • Jean-Luc Rehel
    • 2
  • Myriam Mezzarobba
    • 1
  • Bernard Aubert
    • 2
  • Dominique Laurier
    • 1
  • Marie-Odile Bernier
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of EpidemiologyInstitut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté NucléaireFontenay-aux-RosesFrance
  2. 2.Medical Radiation Protection Expertise UnitInstitut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté NucléaireFontenay-aux-RosesFrance

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