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Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 405–419 | Cite as

Dose-rate effects of protons on in vivo activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and cytokines in mouse bone marrow cells

  • Kanokporn Noy Rithidech
  • Paiboon Reungpatthanaphong
  • Louise Honikel
  • Adam Rusek
  • Sanford R. Simon
Original Paper

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and cytokine expression in bone marrow (BM) cells of exposed mice as a function of the dose rate of protons. The cytokines included in this study are pro-inflammatory [i.e., tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and IL-6] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-4 and IL-10). We gave male BALB/cJ mice a whole-body exposure to 0 (sham-controls) or 1.0 Gy of 100 MeV protons, delivered at 5 or 10 mGy min−1, the dose and dose rates found during solar particle events in space. As a reference radiation, groups of mice were exposed to 0 (sham-controls) or 1 Gy of 137Cs γ rays (10 mGy min−1). After irradiation, BM cells were collected at 1.5, 3, 24 h, and 1 month for analyses (five mice per treatment group per harvest time). The results indicated that the in vivo time course of effects induced by a single dose of 1 Gy of 100 MeV protons or 137Cs γ rays, delivered at 10 mGy min−1, was similar. Although statistically significant levels of NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in BM cells of exposed mice when compared to those in the corresponding sham controls (Student’s t-test, p < 0.05 or <0.01) were induced by either dose rate, these levels varied over time for each protein. Further, only a dose rate of 5 mGy min−1 induced significant levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. The results indicate dose-rate effects of protons.

Keywords

Dose Rate Bone Marrow Cell Sham Control High Dose Rate Brookhaven National Laboratory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Peter Guida and his team for logistic support, MaryAnn Petry and her BLAF staff for their assistance in animal handling. We also thank Dr. Michael Sivertz for dosimetry support. This work was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant #NNX07AP88G.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kanokporn Noy Rithidech
    • 1
  • Paiboon Reungpatthanaphong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Louise Honikel
    • 1
  • Adam Rusek
    • 3
  • Sanford R. Simon
    • 1
  1. 1.Pathology DepartmentStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Radio-Isotope Department, Faculty of SciencesKasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Accelerator Department, NASA Research LaboratoryBrookhaven National LaboratoryUptonUSA

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