Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 227–235 | Cite as

Temperature-controlled exposure systems for investigating possible changes of retinal ganglion cell activity in response to high-frequency electromagnetic fields

  • Malte T. Ahlers
  • Thomas Bolz
  • Achim Bahr
  • Josef Ammermüller
Original Paper


Two exposure systems were developed for the measurement of retinal ganglion cell responses to light under the influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Exposure characteristics were determined numerically for the GSM standards (900/1,800 MHz) and the UMTS standard (1,966 MHz) with specific absorption rates, averaged over the region of interest, of 0.02, 0.2, 2 und 20 W kg−1. Extracellular multi- and single unit recordings of light responses from several retinal ganglion cells per retina could be obtained in these exposure systems on a regular basis, using two recording electrodes simultaneously. With appropriate temperature control adjustment, maximal temperature deviations at exposure onset and offset were well below the range of ±0.1°C for all SAR values.


Retina Ganglion Cell Retinal Ganglion Cell Ganglion Cell Layer Mouse Retina 
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This work was supported by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Germany (StSch 4429) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (FOR 701). We thank Jennifer Trümpler for critically reading the manuscript. M. T. A. would like to thank E. D. Ahlers for the technical support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malte T. Ahlers
    • 1
  • Thomas Bolz
    • 2
  • Achim Bahr
    • 2
  • Josef Ammermüller
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics and Natural SciencesCarl-von-Ossietzky University OldenburgOldenburgGermany
  2. 2.IMST GmbHKamp-LintfortGermany

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