Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

, Volume 42, Issue 4, pp 229–235 | Cite as

Voxel-based computational models of real human anatomy: a review



Computational models of human anatomy are mathematical representations of human anatomy designed to be used in dosimetry calculations. They have been used in dosimetry calculations for radiography, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, radiation protection and to investigate the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields. Tomographic medical imaging techniques have allowed the construction of digital three-dimensional computational models based on the actual anatomy of individual humans. These are called voxel models, tomographic models or phantoms. Their usefulness lies in their faithful representation of human anatomy and the flexibility they afford by being able to be scaled in size to match the required human dimensions. Segmenting medical images in order to make voxel models is very time-consuming so semi-automatic segmentation techniques are being developed. Some 21 whole or partial body models currently exist and more are being prepared. These models are listed and discussed.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Nursing and Midwifery, Sturt BuildingFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

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