From basalt to dacite: origin and evolution of the calc-alkaline series of Salina, Aeolian Arc, Italy
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The island of Salina comprises one of the most distinct calc-alkaline series of the Aeolian arc (Italy), in which calc-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline, shoshonitic and leucite-shoshonitic magma series are developed. Detailed petrological, geochemical and isotopic (Sr, Nd, Pb, O) data are reported for a stratigraphically well-established sequence of lavas and pyroclastic rocks from the Middle Pleistocene volcanic cycle (430–127 ka) of Salina, which is characterized by an early period of basaltic volcanism (Corvo; Capo; Rivi; Fossa delle Felci, group 1) and a sequence of basaltic andesites, and andesites and dacites in the final stages of activity (Fossa delle Felci, groups 2–8). Major and trace element compositional trends, rare earth element (REE) abundances and mineralogy reveal the importance of crystal fractionation of plagioclase + clinopyroxene + olivine/ orthopyroxene ± titanomagnetite ± amphibole ± apatite in generating the more evolved magma types from parental basaltic magmas, and plagioclase accumulation in producing the high Al2O3 contents of some of the more evolved basalts. Sr isotope ratios range from 0.70410 to 0.70463 throughout the suite and show a well-defined negative correlation with 143Nd/144Nd (0.51275–0.51279). Pb isotope compositions are distinctly radiogenic with relatively large variations in 206Pb/204Pb (19.30–19.66), fairly constant 207Pb/204Pb (15.68–15.76) and minor variations in 208Pb/204Pb ratios (39.15–39.51). Whole-rock δ18O values range from +6.4 to +8.5‰ and correlate positively with Sr isotope ratios. Overall, the isotopic variations are correlated with the degree of differentiation of the rocks, indicating that only small degrees of crustal assimilation are overprinting the dominant evolution by crystal–liquid fractionation (AFC-type processes). The radiogenic and oxygen isotope composition of the Salina basalts suggests derivation from primary magmas from a depleted mantle source contaminated by slab-derived fluids and subducted sediments with an isotopic signature of typical upper continental crust. These magmas then evolved further to andesitic and dacitic compositions through the prevailing process of low-pressure fractional crystallization in a shallow magma reservoir, accompanied by minor assimilation of crustal lithologies similar to those of the Calabrian lower crust.
KeywordsOlivine 204Pb Fractional Crystallization 86Sr Basaltic Andesite
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