Magmatic superheating is a condition with relevance to natural systems as well as experimental studies of crystallization kinetics. Magmas on Earth and other planetary bodies may become superheated during adiabatic ascent from the mantle or as a consequence of meteorite impact-generated crustal melting. Experimental studies of igneous processes commonly employ superheating in the homogenization of synthetic starting materials. We performed 1-atmosphere dynamic crystallization experiments to study the effects of superliquidus thermal history on the morphologies and compositions of subsequently grown olivine crystals. An ultramafic volcanic rock with abundant olivine was fused above the experimentally determined liquidus temperature (1395 °C), held for 0, 3, or 12 h, cooled at 25 °C h−1, and quenched from 200 °C below the liquidus, all at constant fO2, corresponding to FMQ-2 ± 0.2 log units. An increase in olivine morphologic instability is correlated with superheating magnitude, parameterized as the integrated time the sample is held above the liquidus (“TtL”; °C h). We infer that a delay in nucleation, which intensifies monotonically with increasing TtL, causes crystal growth to be increasingly rapid. This result indicates that the structural relaxation time scale controlling the formation of crystal nuclei is (a) far longer than the time scale associated with viscous flow and (b) exceeds the liquidus dwell times typically imposed in crystallization experiments. The influence of magmatic superheating on crystal morphology is similar in sense and magnitude to that of subliquidus cooling rate and thus, both factors should be considered when interpreting the thermal history of a volcanic rock containing anhedral olivine.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Aitken BG, Echeverría LM (1984) Petrology and geochemistry of komatiites and tholeiites from Gorgona Island, Colombia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 86:94–105
Asimow PD (2001) Calculation of Peridotite Partial Melting from Thermodynamic Models of Minerals and Melts, IV. Adiabatic Decompression and the Composition and Mean Properties of Mid-ocean Ridge Basalts
Berkebile CA, Dowty E (1982) Nucleation in laboratory charges of basaltic composition. Am Mineral 67:886–899
Berndt J, Koepke J, Holtz F (2005) An experimental investigation of the influence of water and oxygen fugacity on differentiation of MORB at 200 MPa. J Petrol 46:135–167. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egh066
Burkhard OD, Sharpton VL (1999) Large meteorite impacts and planetary evolution II. Geological Society of America, Boulder
Demouchy S, Jacobsen SD, Gaillard F, Stem CR (2006) Rapid magma ascent recorded by water diffusion profiles in mantle olivine. Geology 34:429–432. https://doi.org/10.1130/G22386.1
Dingwell DB, Webb SL (1990) Relaxation in silicate melts. Eur J Mineral 2:427–449. https://doi.org/10.1127/ejm/2/4/0427
Donaldson CH (1976) An experimental investigation of olivine morphology. Contrib Mineral Petrol 57:187–213
Donaldson CH (1979) An experimental investigation of the delay in nucleation of olivine in Mafic Magmas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 69:21–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00375191
Faure F, Trolliard G, Nicollet C, Montel J-M (2003) A developmental model of olivine morphology as a function of the cooling rate and the degree of undercooling. Contrib Mineral Petrol 145:251–263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-003-0449-y
Faure F, Schiano P, Trolliard G et al (2007) Textural evolution of polyhedral olivine experiencing rapid cooling rates. Contrib Mineral Petrol 153:405–416. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-006-0154-8
First E, Hammer JE (2016) Igneous cooling history of olivine-phyric shergottite Yamato 980459 constrained by dynamic crystallization experiments. Meteorit Planet Sci. https://doi.org/10.1111/maps.12659
Fu X, Chen G, Zu Y et al (2013) Microstructure refinement of melt-grown Al2O3/YAG/ZrO2 eutectic composite by a new method: melt superheating treatment. Scr Mater 68:731–734. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2013.01.009
Gibb FGF (1974) Supercooling and the crystallization of plagioclase from a basaltic magma. Mineral Mag 39:641–653. https://doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1974.039.306.02
Giordano D, Russell JK, Dingwell DB (2008) Viscosity of magmatic liquids: a model. Earth Planet Sci Lett 271:123–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2008.03.038
Gualda GAR, Ghiorso MS, Lemons RV, Carley TL (2012) Rhyolite-MELTS: a modified calibration of MELTS optimized for silica-rich, fluid-bearing magmatic systems. J Petrol 53:875–890. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egr080
Hammer JE (2009) Application of a textural geospeedometer to the late-stage magmatic history of MIL 03346. Meteorit Planet Sci. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1945-5100.2009.tb00724.x
Herring C (1951) Some theorems on the free energies of crystal surfaces. Phys Rev 82:87–93
Hewins R, Connoly HJ, Lofgren GE, Libourel G (2005) Experimental constraints on alkali condensation in chondrule formation. In: Krot A, Scott E, Reipurth B (eds) Chondrites and the protoplanetary disk. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1183–1188
Hildreth W (1981) Gradients in silicic magma chambers: implications for lithospheric magmatism. J Geophys Res 86:10153–10192
Jambon A, Lussiez P, Clocchiatti R et al (1992) Olivine growth rate in a tholeiitic basalt: an experimental study of melt inclusion in plagioclase. Chem Geol 96:277–287
Jarosewich E, Nelen JA, Norberg JA (1980) Reference samples for electron microprobe analysis. Geostand Geoanalyt Res 4:43–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-908X.1980.tb00273.x
Kirkpatrick RJ (1975) Crystal growth from the melt: a review. Am Mineral 60:798–814
Langmuir CH, Klein EM, Plank T (1992) Petrological systematics ofmid-ocean ridge basalts: constraints on melt generation beneath ocean ridges. In: Phipps Morgan J, Blackman DK, Sinton JM (eds) Mantle flow and melt generation at mid-ocean ridges. Geophysical monograph, vol 71. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp 183–280
Le Maitre R, Streckeisen A, Zanettin B, Le Bas M, Bonin B, Bateman P (eds) (2002) Igneous rocks: a classification and glossary of terms: recommendations of the International Union of Geological Sciences Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous Rocks. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511535581
Lofgren GE, Lanier AB (1992) Dynamic crystallization experiments on the Angra dos Reis achondritic meteorite. Earth Planet Sci Lett 111:455–466
Lofgren GE, Huss GR, Wasserburg GJ (2006) An experimental study of trace-element partitioning between Ti-Al-clinopyroxene and melt: equilibrium and kinetic effects including sector zoning. Am Mineral 91:1596–1606. https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2006.2108
Mathieu R, Libourel G, Deloule E et al (2011) Na2O solubility in CaO–MgO–SiO2 melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:608–628. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2010.11.001
Matzen AK, Baker MB, Beckett JR, Stolper EM (2013) The temperature and pressure dependence of nickel partitioning between olivine and silicate melt. J Petrol 54:2521–2545. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egt055
Matzen AK, Wood BJ, Baker MB, Stolper EM (2017) The roles of pyroxenite and peridotite in the mantle sources of oceanic basalts. Nat Geosci 10:530–535. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2968
McCarthy A, Muntener O (2016) Comb layering monitors decompressing and fractionating hydrous mafic magmas in subvolcanic plumbing systems (Fisher Lake, Sierra Nevada, USA). J Geophys Res EARTH 121:8595–8621. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JB013489
McKenzie D, Bickle MJ (1988) The volume and composition of melt generated by extension of the lithosphere. J Petrol 29:625–679. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/29.3.625
Mollo S, Hammer JE (2017) Dynamic crystallization in magmas. In: Heinrich W, Abart R (eds) Mineral reaction kinetics; microstructures, textures, chemical and isotopic signatures. European Mineralogical Union Notes in Mineralogy, vol 16, pp 373–418
Mollo S, Del P, Ventura G et al (2010) Dependence of clinopyroxene composition on cooling rate in basaltic magmas: implications for thermobarometry. Lithos 118:302–312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2010.05.006
Nash A, Nash P (1985) Ni-Re (Nickel-Rhenium) system. Bull Alloy Phase Diagrams 6:348–350
Ni H, Keppler H, Walte N et al (2014) In situ observation of crystal growth in a basalt melt and the development of crystal size distribution in igneous rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 167:1003. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-014-1003-9
O’Driscoll B, Donaldson CH, Troll VR et al (2006) An origin for harrisitic and granular olivine in the rum layered suite, NW Scotland: a crystal size distribution study. J Petrol 48:253–270. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egl059
O’Neill HSC (2005) A method for controlling alkali-metal oxide activities in one-atmosphere experiments and its application to measuring the relative activity coefficients of NaO0.5 in silicate melts. Am Mineral 90:497–501. https://doi.org/10.2138/am.2005.1792
Ozawa A, Tagami T, Garcia MO (2005) Unspiked K-Ar dating of the Honolulu rejuvenated and Ko’olau shield volcanism on O’ahu, Hawai’i. Earth Planet Sci Lett 232:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.01.021
Pupier E, Duchene S, Toplis MJ (2008) Experimental quantification of plagioclase crystal size distribution during cooling of a basaltic liquid. Contrib Mineral Petrol 155:555–570. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-007-0258-9
Richet P, Leclerc F, Benoist L (1993) Melting of Forsterite and spinel, with implications for the glass transition of Mg2SiO4 liquid. Geophys Res Lett 20:1675–1678
Robie R, Hemingway B, Fisher J (1978) Thermodynamic properties of minerals and related substances at 298.15 K and 1 bar pressure and at higher temperatures. US Geol Surv Bull 1452:456. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm201964r
Roskosz M, Toplis MJ, Besson P, Richet P (2005) Nucleation mechanisms: a crystal-chemical investigation of phases forming in highly supercooled aluminosilicate liquids. J Non Cryst Solids 351:1266–1282. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2005.02.021
Ruprecht P, Plank T (2013) Feeding andesitic eruptions with a high-speed connection from the mantle. Nature 500:68–72. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12342
Shea T, Lynn KJ, Garcia MO (2015) Cracking the olivine zoning code: distinguishing between crystal growth and diffusion. Geology 43:935–938. https://doi.org/10.1130/G37082.1
Sobolev AV, Hofmann AW, Kuzmin DV et al (2007) The amount of recycled crust in sources of mantle—derived melts. Science 316:412–417. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1138113
Stebbins JF, Carmichael ISE (1984) The heat of fusion of fayalite. Am Mineral 69:292–297
Sunagawa I (1987) Morphology of minerals. In: Sunagawa I (ed) Morphology of crystals. Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo, pp 511–587
Sunagawa I (1992) In situ investigation of nucleation, growth, and dissolution of silicate crystals at high temperatuers. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 20:113–142
Tsuchiyama A (1983) Crystallization kinetics in the system CaMgSi2O6–CaAl2Si2O8: the delay in nucleation of diopside and anorthite. Am Mineral 68:687–698
Turnbull D, Cohen MH (1960) Crystallization kinetics and glass formation. In: Mackenzie SD (ed) Modern aspects of the vitreous state. Butterworths, London, pp 35–62
Underwood EE (1968) Surface area and length in volume. In: DeHoff RT, Rhines F (eds) Quantitative microscopy. Mcgraw-Hill, New York, pp 78–127
Vetere F, Iezzi G, Behrens H et al (2013) Intrinsic solidification behaviour of basaltic to rhyolitic melts: a cooling rate experimental study. Chem Geol 354:233–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2013.06.007
Wagner TP, Grove TL (1998) Melt/Harzburgite reaction in the Petrogenesis of theoleiitic magma from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Contrib Mineral Petrol 131:1–12
Wagstaff FE (1968) Crystallization kinetics of internally nucleated vitreous silica. J Am Ceram Soc 51:449–453
Walker D, Powell M, Lofgren G, Hays J (1978) Dynamic crystallization of a eucrite basalt. Lunar Planet Sci IX. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004
Waters LE, Andrews BJ, Lange RA (2015) rapid crystallization of plagioclase phenocrysts in silicic melts during fluid-saturated ascent: phase equilibrium and decompression experiments. J Petrol 56:981–1006. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egv025
Welsch B, Faure F, Famin V et al (2013) Dendritic crystallization: a single process for all the textures of olivine in basalts? J Petrol 54:539–574. https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egs077
Zieg MJ, Marsh BD (2005) The sudbury igneous complex: viscous emulsion differentiation of a superheated impact melt sheet. Geol Soc Am Bull 117:1427–1450
We gratefully thank M. Garcia for discussions and samples, E. Hellebrand, T. Shea, J. Boesenberg, S. Mallick, B. Chilson Parks, A. Charn, and I. Fendley for analytical assistance; B. Welsch, G. Libourel, M. Rutherford, and M. Davis for lively debates; N. Arndt, B. Lange, S. Mollo and anonymous reviewers for thoughtful comments. This work was supported by National Science Foundation (US) awards EAR1321890 and EAR1347887 and is SOEST publication #10803.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Communicated by Gordon Moore.
Appendix A. Critically evaluating the effects of Na-loss
Appendix A. Critically evaluating the effects of Na-loss
The conditions and consequences of the loss of volatile alkalis such as Na are exacerbated in our Na-rich starting material (~ 2 wt.% in the whole rock) by high operating temperatures (≤ 1500 °C). Noting the importance of Na2O concentration for olivine stability (e.g., Mathieu et al. 2011) and melt viscosity, we critically examine the effects of Na loss on our determination of the equilibrium olivine-in temperature and olivine growth rate.
Influence on liquidus temperature
Loss of Na serves to raise the liquidus of a silicate melt (Mathieu et al. 2011). Therefore, determining the liquidus of an alkalic melt undergoing volatile loss could be difficult. Notably, liquids having experienced severe Na-loss, with TL > 1395 °C, are thus likely to be less superheated than is implied by the reported + ∆T value. However, compositional analyses of the glass in five liquidus-seeking experiments (supplementary Excel file) show that variable Na loss does not significantly affect the olivine-in temperature of this composition at the conditions studied. For example, two experiments at 1396 °C were run for either 12 h (L11) or 6 h (L13), with the shorter duration quench product containing more than twice the Na2O content of the longer duration run. Crystals were only positively identified via SEM, and only in the 12 h sample. However, glass compositions show that the 6 h sample is slightly more evolved, suggesting our thin section of the 6 h sample simply did not intersect the minute amount of olivine present. Curiously, the lower Na content of the 12 h run should increase Tliquidus and result in more olivine crystallization at the given temperature, but this is not reflected in the liquid compositions. A similar comparison can be made between L06 and L12, run at 1380 °C for 12 h and 6 h, respectively. Again, despite more than 50% relative loss of Na2O in the 12 h run compared to the 6 h run, liquid compositions reveal similar ratios of Mg/Fe, Ca/Mg, and Al/Mg, suggesting no dramatic shift in liquidus temperature and thus corresponding olivine crystallization.
It is also clear from these glass analyses that the experiments at 1380 °C crystallized olivine, whereas the experiments at 1393–1396 °C have glass compositions almost identical to the high-T quench experiments (supplementary Excel file). Calculations using MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012) show an estimated liquidus temperature of 1373 °C, using the composition in Table 1. Thus, our glass data, similarity to MELTS calculations, and the observation that no relict olivine (identified visually or via glass composition) occurs in runs with TtL > 2, supports the determination of 1395 °C as the liquidus temperature of this material.
Influence on olivine growth rate
In addition to decreasing the actual superheating degree, Na-loss potentially influences crystal growth rate through an increase in the magnitude of undercooling imposed on the system at a given temperature during cooling, and secondly, through an increase in melt viscosity (Giordano et al. 2008). Increasing the undercooling increases the crystal growth rate, whereas increasing viscosity depresses the growth rate through a control on the mobility of crystal-forming components in the liquid. Could elevated growth rate in the high TtL samples result from Na-loss, rather than an influence of superheating on crystal nucleation? We quantitatively evaluate the competing effects of Na-loss for incipient olivine growth (i.e. the onset of crystallization) utilizing the classical formation of crystal growth rate with simplifying assumptions (Turnbull and Cohen 1960; Wagstaff 1968), adopted by Kirkpatrick (1975) and summarized in Eq. 2.
where Y is crystal face advance rate (m s−1); f is the fraction of sites available for atoms to attach to the crystal; k is the Boltzmann constant; T is temperature (K); η is the liquid viscosity (Pa s) calculated as a function of both composition and T according to Giordano et al. (2008); ao is the molecular layer thickness, here taken as the forsterite lattice parameter a, 4.75 × 10−10 m; TL is the olivine-in temperature (either 1395 or 1410 °C); ∆Hfus (J mol−1) is the heat of fusion of at TL, calculated for Fo86 at 1395 and 1410 °C using ∆Hfus values (Stebbins and Carmichael 1984; Richet et al. 1993) and heat capacity coefficients (Robie et al. 1978) for end-member forsterite and fayalite; in this context, ∆T is the undercooling (TL–T); and R is the gas constant. The absolute value of growth rate is poorly constrained through imprecise knowledge of f and ao. We address this problem by assuming f = 0.007, which reproduces the olivine growth rate observed in situ at ∆T = 75 °C (Jambon et al. 1992), adjusted for liquid viscosity. Importantly, the relative positions and magnitudes of growth rate maxima depend only on viscosity, ∆T, and TL, which we calculate for liquids using arbitrarily extreme values in Na2O content (4.7 and 0.2 wt.%) that go even beyond the loss in our experiments. We utilize MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012) for ∆T and TL calculations, and Giordano et al. (2008) for viscosity calculations.
As anticipated, increasing TL pushes the entire bell-shaped growth rate curve toward higher temperature, whereas increasing viscosity depresses the height of the curve. A crossover exists, such that olivine growth rate is more rapid in the Na-depleted liquid near TL, but at lower temperatures, growth is more rapid in the un-depleted melt (Fig. 6). The skeletal crystals observed in our experiments indicate growth at high undercooling, likely at temperatures below the crossover point (1370 °C). Making a comparison with the experiments of Faure et al. (2003), at our experimental cooling rate of 25 °C h−1, undercooling > 50 °C is necessary to produce the olivine morphologies in our experiments. Because Na-loss tends to reduce the growth rate at high undercooling, progressive Na-loss is unlikely to give rise to the morphologic progression with increasing TtL (Fig. 2). The inferred variations in growth rate more plausibly arise from differences in nucleation undercooling arising from superheating, as described above. We emphasize that this sensitivity analysis does not model olivine growth rate as it occurs in our experimental charges during cooling. The crystal growth rate varies with evolving viscosity and undercooling, with the former progressively increasing and the latter a complex function of decreasing temperature (raising the undercooling) and incremental crystallization (decreasing the undercooling).
About this article
Cite this article
First, E.C., Leonhardi, T.C. & Hammer, J.E. Effects of superheating magnitude on olivine growth. Contrib Mineral Petrol 175, 13 (2020) doi:10.1007/s00410-019-1638-7
- Crystal growth
- Textural analysis
- Crystal nucleation