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CO2 bubble generation and migration during magma–carbonate interaction

  • L. S. Blythe
  • F. M. Deegan
  • C. Freda
  • E. M. Jolis
  • M. Masotta
  • V. Misiti
  • J. Taddeucci
  • V. R. Troll
Original Paper

Abstract

We conducted quantitative textural analysis of vesicles in high temperature and pressure carbonate assimilation experiments (1200 °C, 0.5 GPa) to investigate CO2 generation and subsequent bubble migration from carbonate into magma. We employed Mt. Merapi (Indonesia) and Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) compositions as magmatic starting materials and present three experimental series using (1) a dry basaltic-andesite, (2) a hydrous basaltic-andesite (2 wt% H2O), and (3) a hydrous shoshonite (2 wt% H2O). The duration of the experiments was varied from 0 to 300 s, and carbonate assimilation produced a CO2-rich fluid and CaO-enriched melts in all cases. The rate of carbonate assimilation, however, changed as a function of melt viscosity, which affected the 2D vesicle number, vesicle volume, and vesicle size distribution within each experiment. Relatively low-viscosity melts (i.e. Vesuvius experiments) facilitated efficient removal of bubbles from the reaction site. This allowed carbonate assimilation to continue unhindered and large volumes of CO2 to be liberated, a scenario thought to fuel sustained CO2-driven eruptions at the surface. Conversely, at higher viscosity (i.e. Merapi experiments), bubble migration became progressively inhibited and bubble concentration at the reaction site caused localised volatile over-pressure that can eventually trigger short-lived explosive outbursts. Melt viscosity therefore exerts a fundamental control on carbonate assimilation rates and, by consequence, the style of CO2-fuelled eruptions.

Keywords

CO2 Carbonate assimilation Melt viscosity Bubble size distribution Eruption style 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Lucia Civetta is thanked for providing the samples for the Vesuvius experiments and Giovanni Orsi for discussion on Vesuvius magmatic processes. Claus Siebe, Ben van Wyk de Vries, and Silvio Mollo are thanked for encouraging discussion on the experiments. We also thank Michael Heap and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that helped to improve the manuscript and Jochen Hoefs for editorial handling. This work was supported by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), the Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (IRCSET), the Center for Natural Disaster Studies (CNDS) at Uppsala University (UU), and by the Swedish Science Foundation (VR).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. S. Blythe
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. M. Deegan
    • 1
    • 3
  • C. Freda
    • 4
  • E. M. Jolis
    • 1
  • M. Masotta
    • 5
  • V. Misiti
    • 4
  • J. Taddeucci
    • 4
  • V. R. Troll
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Earth Sciences, Centre for Experimental Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry (CEMPEG)Uppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  2. 2.School of Physical and Geographical ScienceKeele UniversityKeeleUK
  3. 3.Department of Geological SciencesStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)RomeItaly
  5. 5.Bayerisches GeoinstitutUniversität BayreuthBayreuthGermany

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