Anatexis at the roof of an oceanic magma chamber at IODP Site 1256 (equatorial Pacific): an experimental study

  • Martin Erdmann
  • Lennart A. Fischer
  • Lydéric France
  • Chao Zhang
  • Marguerite Godard
  • Jürgen Koepke
Original Paper

Abstract

Replenished axial melt lenses at fast-spreading mid-oceanic ridges may move upward and intrude into the overlying hydrothermally altered sheeted dikes, resulting in high-grade contact metamorphism with the potential to trigger anatexis in the roof rocks. Assumed products of this process are anatectic melts of felsic composition and granoblastic, two-pyroxene hornfels, representing the residue after partial melting. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expeditions 309, 312, and 335 at Site 1256 (eastern equatorial Pacific) sampled such a fossilized oceanic magma chamber. In this study, we simulated magma chamber roof rock anatectic processes by performing partial melting experiments using six different protoliths from the Site 1256 sheeted dike complex, spanning a lithological range from poorly to strongly altered basalts to partially or fully recrystallized granoblastic hornfels. Results show that extensively altered starting material lacking primary magmatic minerals cannot reproduce the chemistry of natural felsic rocks recovered in ridge environments, especially elements sensitive to hydrothermal alteration (e.g., K, Cl). Natural geochemical trends are reproduced through partial melting of moderately altered basalts from the lower sheeted dikes. Two-pyroxene hornfels, the assumed residue, were reproduced only at low melting degrees (<20 vol%). The overall amphibole absence in the experiments confirms the natural observation that amphibole is not produced during peak metamorphism. Comparing experimental products with the natural equivalents reveals that water activity (aH2O) was significantly reduced during anatectic processes, mainly based on lower melt aluminum oxide and lower plagioclase anorthite content at lower aH2O. High silica melt at the expected temperature (1000–1050 °C; peak thermal overprint of two-pyroxene hornfels) could only be reproduced in the experimental series performed at aH2O = 0.1.

Keywords

Experimental petrology Partial melting Fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge Oceanic plagiogranite Granoblastic hornfels Conductive boundary layer 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Otto Dietrich and Julian Feige for their careful sample preparation. The manuscript has been substantially improved after thorough reviews by M. Perfit and two anonymous reviewers. This research used samples and/or data provided by the International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). IODP is sponsored by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and participating countries under management of the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (COL). Funding for this research was provided by grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (KO 1723/13).

Supplementary material

410_2015_1136_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (83 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 82 kb)
410_2015_1136_MOESM2_ESM.tif (27.3 mb)
Supplementary material 2 N-MORB normalized (Gale et al. 2013) trace elements contents of the starting materials of this study. Additionally shown is the calculated residual assemblage composition of the experiment with the lowest degree of partial melting (at 955 °C) published by France et al. (2014) (TIFF 27926 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Erdmann
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lennart A. Fischer
    • 1
  • Lydéric France
    • 2
  • Chao Zhang
    • 1
  • Marguerite Godard
    • 3
  • Jürgen Koepke
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für MineralogieLeibniz Universität HannoverHannoverGermany
  2. 2.CRPG, UMR 7358, CNRSUniversité de LorraineVandœuvre-lès-NancyFrance
  3. 3.GéosciencesUniversité Montpellier 2MontpellierFrance

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