Advertisement

Formation of low-δ18O magmas of the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion by addition of water derived from dehydration of foundered basaltic roof rocks

  • Morten S. Riishuus
  • Chris Harris
  • David W. Peate
  • Christian Tegner
  • J. Richard Wilson
  • C. Kent Brooks
Original Paper

Abstract

The Kangerlussuaq Intrusion in East Greenland is concentrically zoned from quartz nordmarkite (quartz syenite) at the margin, through pulaskite, to foyaite (nepheline syenite) in the centre, with no apparent intrusive contacts. The δ18O values of coexisting minerals are consistent with oxygen isotope equilibrium at magmatic temperatures. Most of the intrusion formed from low-δ18O magma; magma δ18O values generally increased upwards from about 3.3 ‰ in the quartz nordmarkites to 5.6 ‰ in the foyaites. The lowest magma δ18O value of about −1.0 ‰ is from the upper part of the nordmarkites, where there is a high concentration of foundered basaltic xenoliths (stoped from the roof of the intrusion). The amphiboles in the syenites have δD values that range from those typical of hydrous mantle-derived minerals to much lower values (−86 to −157 ‰), as do whole-rock samples of xenolith and country rock (−125 to −148 ‰). The low magma δ18O and δD values are consistent with continuous incorporation, exchange and upward escape of low-δ18O and δD fluids released from stoped basaltic roof material. Mass balance suggests that the integrated amount of water involved was 7 wt% of the volume of the magma, but locally reached 30 wt% water. The requirement for large amounts of water with low δ18O value is satisfied only if the foundered basalt contained most of its water in cavities as opposed to hydrous minerals. Even with this requirement, the volume of stoped basalt would have been equal to the volume of the magma. Repeated recharge of the residual magma with progressively less contaminated silica undersaturated melt resulted in a gradual shift across the low-pressure thermal divide. Crystallisation was suppressed by the depression of the liquidus due to water saturation of the residual magma (pH2O ~1 kbar).

Keywords

Low-δ¹8O magma Syenite petrogenesis Petrogeny’s residua system East Greenland 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was a part of M. S. Riishuus’ Ph.D. project financed by the Science Faculty at the University of Aarhus. Additional financial support was provided by the Danish National Research Foundation through the Danish Lithosphere Centre and a grant from the Danish Natural Science Research Council to Christian Tegner. John Lanham and Fayrooza Rawoot are thanked for their help in obtaining the stable isotope data. We thank Ian Parsons, Alan Matthews, Ilya Bindeman and an anonymous reviewer for very helpful comments on various versions of the manuscript. We thank Jochen Hoefs for the editorial handling and patience with the corresponding author in completing the manuscript revision while engaged in the monitoring of the 2014-15 Bárdarbunga fissure eruption.

References

  1. Ambach W, Dansgaard W, Eisner H, Moller J (1968) The altitude effect on the isotopic composition of precipitation and glacier ice in the Alps. Tellus 20:594–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beard JS, Lofgren GE (1991) Dehydration melting and water-saturated melting of basaltic and andesitic greenstones and amphibolites at 1, 3, and 6.9 kb. J Petrol 32:365–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bindeman I (2008) Oxygen isotopes in mantle and crustal magmas as revealed by single crystal analysis. Rev Mineral Geochem 69(1):445–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bindeman IN, Valley JW (2001) Low-δ18O rhyolites from Yellowstone: magmatic evolution based on analyses of zircon and individual phenocrysts. J Petrol 42:1491–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bindeman IN, Valley JW (2003) Rapid generation of both high- and low-δ18O, large volume silicic magmas at Timber Mountain/Oasis Valley caldera complex, Nevada. Geol Soc Am Bull 115(5):581–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bindeman IN, Fu B, Kita NT, Valley JW (2008) Origin and evolution of silicic magmatism at Yellowstone based on ion microprobe analysis of isotopically zoned zircons. J Petrol 49:163–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonatti E (1965) Palagonite, hyaloclastites and alteration of volcanic glass in the ocean. Bull Volc 28:257–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boroughs S, Wolff J, Bonnichsen B, Godchaux M, Larson P (2005) Large-volume, low-delta O-18 rhyolites of the central Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA. Geology 33:821–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boroughs S, Wolff JA, Ellis BS, Bonnichsen B, Larson PB (2012) Evaluation of models for the origin of Miocene low-delta O-18 rhyolites of the Yellowstone/Columbia River Large Igneous Province. Earth Planet Sci Lett 313:45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brandriss ME, Nevle RJ, Bird DK, O’Neil JR (1995) Imprint of meteoric water on the stable isotope compositions of igneous and secondary minerals, Kap Edvard Holm Complex, East Greenland. Contrib Mineral Petrol 121:74–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brandriss ME, Bird DK, O’Neil JR, Cullers RL (1996) Dehydration, partial melting, and assimilation of metabasaltic xenoliths in gabbros of the Kap Edvard Holm complex, East Greenland. Am J Sci 296:333–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brooks CK (1973) Rifting and doming in southern East Greenland. Nature 244:23–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brooks CK (1979) Geomorphological observations at Kangerdlugssuaq, East Greenland. Medd Grønland Geosci 1:1–21Google Scholar
  14. Brooks CK, Gill RCO (1982) Compositional variation in the pyroxenes and amphiboles of the Kangerdlugssuaq Intrusion, East Greenland: further evidence for the crustal contamination of syenite magma. Mineral Mag 45:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brooks CK, Nielsen TFD (1982a) The E Greenland continental margin: a transition between oceanic and continental magmatism. J Geol Soc Lond 139:265–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brooks CK, Nielsen TFD (1982b) The Phanerozoic development of the Kangerdlugssuaq area, East Greenland. Medd Grønland Geosci 9:1–30Google Scholar
  17. Chacko T, Mayeda TK, Clayton RN, Goldsmith JR (1991) Oxygen and carbon isotope fractionations between CO2 and calcite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:2867–2882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chiba H, Chacko T, Clayton RN, Goldsmith JR (1989) Oxygen isotope fractionations involving diopside, forsterite, magnetite, and calcite: application to geothermometry. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:2985–2995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clayton RN, Goldsmith JR, Karel KJ, Mayeda TK, Newton RC (1975) Limits on the effect of pressure on isotopic fractionation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:1197–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Clayton RN, Goldsmith JR, Mayeda TK (1989) Oxygen isotope fractionation in quartz, albite, anorthite and calcite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:725–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coplen TB (1988) Normalization of oxygen and hydrogen isotope data. Chem Geol 72:293–297Google Scholar
  22. Craig H (1961) Isotopic variations in meteoric waters. Science 133:1702–1703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Deer WA, Kempe DRC (1976) Geological investigations in East Greenland, Part XI, The minor peripheral intrusions, Kangerdlugssuaq, East Greenland. Medd Grønland 197(4):1–25Google Scholar
  24. Eiler JM (2001) Oxygen isotope variations of basaltic lavas and upper mantle rocks. Rev Mineral 43:319–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fagereng A, Harris C, La Grange M, Stevens G (2008) Stable isotope study of the Archaean rocks of the Vredefort impact structure, central Kaapvaal craton, South Africa. Contrib Mineral Petrol 155:63–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fuhrman ML, Lindsley DH (1988) Ternary-feldspar modeling and thermometry. Am Mineral 73:201–215Google Scholar
  27. Giletti BJ (1986) Diffusion effects on oxygen isotope temperatures of slowly cooled igneous and metamorphic rocks. Earth Planet Sci Lett 77:218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gleadow AJW, Brooks CK (1979) Fission track dating, thermal histories and tectonics of igneous intrusions in East Greenland. Contrib Mineral Petrol 71:45–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Graham CM, Harmon RS, Sheppard SMF (1984) Experimental hydrogen isotope studies: hydrogen isotope exchange between amphibole and water. Am Mineral 69:128–138Google Scholar
  30. Gregory RT, Criss RE (1986) Isotopic exchange in open and closed systems. In: Valley JW, Taylor HP Jr, O’Neil JR (eds) Stable isotopes in high-temperature geological processes, vol 16. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, pp 91–127Google Scholar
  31. Hamilton DL (1961) Nephelines as crystallization temperature indicators. J Geol 69:321–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hamilton DL, MacKenzie WS (1965) Phase-equilibrium studies in the system NaAlSiO4 (nepheline)–KAlSiO4 (kalsilite)–SiO2–H2O. Mineral Mag 34:214–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hansen H, Pedersen AK, Duncan RA, Bird DK, Brooks CK, Fawcett JJ, Gittins J, Gorton M, O’Day P (2002) Volcanic stratigraphy of the southern Prinsen af Wales Bjerge region, East Greenland. In: Jolley DW, Bell BR (eds) The North Atlantic Igneous Province: stratigraphy, tectonic, volcanic and magmatic processes, vol 197. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, pp 183–218Google Scholar
  34. Harris C (1995) Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the Mesozoic anorogenic complexes of Damaraland, northwest Namibia: evidence for crustal contamination and its effect on silica saturation. Contrib Mineral Petrol 122:308–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harris C, Grantham GH (1993) Geology and petrogenesis of the Straumsvola nepheline syenite complex, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Geol Mag 130:513–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hildreth W, Christiansen RL, O’Neil JR (1984) Catastrophic isotopic modification of rhyolitic magma at times of caldera subsidence, Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. J Geophys Res 89:8339–8369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Japsen P, Green PF, Bonow JM, Nielsen TFD, Chalmers JA (2014) From volcanic plains to glaciated peaks: Burial, uplift and exhumation history of southern East Greenland after opening of the NE Atlantic. Global Planet Change 116:91–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jenkins GRT, Fallick AE, Farrow CM, Bowes GM (1991) COOL: a FORTRAN 77 computer program for modelling stable isotopes in cooling closed systems. Comput Geosci 17:391–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kempe DRC, Deer WA (1970) Geological investigations in East Greenland, part IX, The mineralogy of the Kangerdlugssuaq alkaline intrusion, East Greenland. Medd Grønland 190(3):1–97Google Scholar
  40. Kempe DRC, Deer WA (1976) The petrogenesis of the Kangerdlugssuaq alkaline intrusion, East Greenland. Lithos 9:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kempe DRC, Deer WA, Wager LR (1970) Geological investigations in East Greenland, part VIII, The petrology of the Kangerdlugssuaq alkaline intrusion, East Greenland. Medd Grønland 190(2):1–52Google Scholar
  42. Kyser TK (1986) Stable isotope variations in the mantle. In: Valley JW, Taylor HP Jr, O’Neil JR (eds) Stable isotopes in high-temperature geological processes, vol 16. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, pp 141–164Google Scholar
  43. Lackey JS, Valley JW, Chen JH, Stockli DF (2008) Dynamic magma systems, crustal recycling, and alteration in the central Sierra Nevada batholith: the oxygen isotope record. J Petrol 49:1397–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Larsen LM, Watt WS, Watt M (1989) Geology and petrology of the lower Tertiary plateau basalts of the Scoresby Sund region, East Greenland. Geol Surv Greenl Bull 157:1–164Google Scholar
  45. Manning CE, Bird DK (1991) Porosity evolution and fluid flow in the basalts of the Skaergaard magma-hydrothermal system, East Greenland. Am J Sci 291:201–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Marks M, Vennemann T, Siebel W, Markl G (2004) Nd-, O- and H-isotopic evidence for complex, closed-system fluid evolution of the peralkaline Ilímaussaq intrusion, South Greenland. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:3379–3395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Morse SA (1969) Syenites. Carnegie Institution of Washington Annual Report Geophysical Laboratory vol 67, pp 112–120Google Scholar
  48. Nabelek PI, O’Neil JR, Papike JJ (1983) Vapor phase exsolution as a controlling factor in hydrogen isotope variation in granitic rocks: the Notch Peak granitic stock, Utah. Earth Planet Sci Lett 66:137–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nevle RJ, Brandriss ME, Bird DK, McWilliams MO, O’Neil JR (1994) Tertiary plutons monitor climate change in East Greenland. Geology 22:775–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nielsen TFD (1987) Tertiary alkaline magmatism in East Greenland: a review. In: Fitton JG, Upton BGJ (eds) Alkaline Igneous rocks, vol 30. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 489–515Google Scholar
  51. Palin JM, Epstein S, Stolper EM (1996) Oxygen isotope partitioning between rhyolitic glass/melt and CO2: an experimental study at 550–950°C and 1 bar. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:1963–1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pankhurst RJ, Beckinsale RD, Brooks CK (1976) Strontium and oxygen isotope evidence relating to the petrogenesis of the Kangerdlugssuaq alkaline intrusion, East Greenland. Contrib Mineral Petrol 54:17–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Peate DW, Baker JA, Blichert-Toft J, Hilton DR, Storey M, Kent AJR, Brooks CK, Hansen H, Pedersen AK, Duncan RA (2003) The Prinsen af Wales Bjerge Formation lavas, East Greenland: the transition from tholeiitic to alkalic magmatism during Palaeogene continental break-up. J Petrol 44:279–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pedersen AK, Watt M, Watt WS, Larsen LM (1997) Structure and stratigraphy of the early Tertiary basalts of the Blosseville Kyst, East Greenland. J Geol Soc London 154:565–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Riishuus MS, Peate DW, Tegner C, Wilson JR, Brooks CK, Waight TE (2005) Petrogenesis of syenites at a rifted continental margin: origin, contamination and interaction of alkaline mafic and felsic magmas in the Astrophyllite Bay Complex, East Greenland. Contrib Mineral Petrol 149:350–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Riishuus MS, Peate DW, Tegner C, Wilson JR, Brooks CK, Harris C (2006) Temporal evolution of a long-lived syenitic centre: the Kangerlussuaq Alkaline Complex, East Greenland. Lithos 92:276–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Riishuus MS, Peate DW, Tegner C, Wilson JR, Brooks CK (2008) Petrogenesis of cogenetic silica-oversaturated and undersaturated syenites by periodic recharge in a crustally contaminated magma chamber: the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion, East Greenland. J Petrol 49:493–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rose NM (1989) Geochemistry of hydrothermal metasomatism in basaltic systems. PhD. Stanford University, 188 ppGoogle Scholar
  59. Rumble D, Giorgis D, Ireland T, Zhang ZM, Xu HF, Yui TF, Yang JS, Xu ZQ, Liou JG (2002) Low delta O-18 zircons, U-Pb dating, and the age of the Qinglongshan oxygen and hydrogen isotope anomaly near Donghai in Jiangsu Province, China. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66:2299–2306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Saunders AD, Fitton JG, Kerr AC, Norry MJ, Kent RW (1997) The North Atlantic Igneous Province. In: Mahoney JJ, Coffin MF (eds) Large Igneous Provinces: continental, oceanic, and planetary flood volcanism, vol 100. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 45–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schairer JF (1950) The alkali-feldspar join in the system NaAlSiO4–KAlSiO4–SiO2. J Geol 58:512–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sheppard SMF (1986) Igneous rocks: III. Isotopic case studies of magmatism in Africa, Eurasia and oceanic islands. In: Valley JW, Taylor HP Jr, O’Neil JR (eds) Stable isotopes in high-temperature geological processes, vol 16. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, pp 319–371Google Scholar
  63. Sheppard SMF, Brown PE, Chambers AD (1977) Lilloise intrusion, East Greenland—hydrogen isotope evidence for efflux of magmatic water into contact metamorphic aureole. Contrib Mineral Petrol 63:129–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Storey M, Duncan RA, Tegner C (2007) Timing and duration of volcanism in the North Atlantic Igneous Province: implications for geodynamics and links to the Iceland hotspot. Chem Geol 241:264–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Suzuoki T, Epstein S (1976) Hydrogen isotope fractionation between OH-bearing minerals and water. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 40:1229–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Taylor HP Jr (1968) The oxygen isotope geochemistry of igneous rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 19:1–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Taylor HP Jr (1977) Water/rock interactions and the origin of H2O in granitic batholiths. J Geol Soc London 133:509–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Taylor HP Jr (1986) Igneous rocks: II. Isotopic case studies of Circumpacific magmatism. In: Valley JW, Taylor HP Jr, O’Neil JR (eds) Stable isotopes in high-temperature geological processes, vol 16. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, pp 273–317Google Scholar
  69. Taylor HP Jr, Forester RW (1979) An oxygen and hydrogen isotope study of the Skaergaard intrusion and its country rocks: a description of a 55 m.y. old fossil hydrothermal system. J Petrol 20:355–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Taylor HP Jr, Sheppard SMF (1986) Igneous rocks: I. Processes of isotopic fractionation and isotope systematics. In: Valley JW, Taylor HP Jr, O’Neil JR (eds) Stable isotopes in high-temperature geological processes, vol 16. Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, pp 227–271Google Scholar
  71. Taylor BE, Eichelberger JC, Westrich HR (1983) Hydrogen isotopic evidence of rhyolitic magma degassing during shallow intrusion and eruption. Nature 306:541–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tegner C, Brooks CK, Duncan RA, Heister LE, Bernstein S (2008) 40Ar-39Ar ages of intrusions in East Greenland: rift-to-drift transition over the Iceland hotspot. Lithos 101(3–4):480–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tuttle OF, Bowen NL (1958) Origin of granite in the light of experimental studies in the system NaAlSiO4–KAlSiO4–SiO2–H2O. GSA Mem 74:1–153Google Scholar
  74. Ukstins Peate IU, Larsen M, Lesher CE (2003) The transition from sedimentation to flood volcanism in the Kangerlussuaq Basin, East Greenland: basaltic pyroclastic volcanism during initial Palaeogene continental break-up. J Geol Soc London 160:759–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Vennemann TW, O’Neil JR (1993) A simple and inexpensive method of hydrogen isotope and water analyses of minerals and rocks based on zinc reagent. Chem Geol 103:227–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vennemann TW, Smith HS (1990) The rate and temperature of reaction of ClF3 with silicate minerals, and their relevance to oxygen isotope analysis. Chem Geol 86:83–88Google Scholar
  77. Vennemann TW, Smith HS (1992) Stable isotope profile across the orthoamphibole isograd in the Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa. Precambr Res 55:365–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Verhoef J, Roest WR, Macnab R, Arkani-Hamed J (1996) Magnetic anomalies of the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans and adjacent land areas. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 3125Google Scholar
  79. Wager LR (1947) Geological investigations in East Greenland, Part IV: the stratigraphy and tectonics of Knud Rasmussens Land and the Kangerdlugssuaq region. Medd Grønland 134:1–64Google Scholar
  80. Wager LR (1965) The form and internal structure of the alkaline Kangerdlugssuaq intrusion, East Greenland. Mineral Mag 34:487–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wei CS, Zhao ZF, Spicuzza MJ (2008) Zircon oxygen isotopic constraint on the sources of late Mesozoic A-type granites in eastern China. Chem Geol 250:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wotzlaw JF, Bindeman IN, Schaltegger U, Brooks CK, Naslund HR (2012) High-resolution insights into episodes of crystallization, hydrothermal alteration and remelting in the Skaergaard intrusive complex. Earth Planet Sci Lett 355–356:199–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhao ZF, Zheng YF (2003) Calculation of oxygen isotope fractionation in magmatic rocks. Chem Geol 193(1–2):59–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zheng Y-F (1993a) Calculation of oxygen isotope fractionation in anhydrous silicate minerals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57:1079–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zheng Y-F (1993b) Calculation of oxygen isotope fractionation in hydroxyl-bearing silicates. Earth Planet Sci Lett 120:247–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zheng YF, Fu B, Li YL, Xiao YL, Li SG (1998) Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of ultrahigh-pressure eclogites from the Dabie Mountains and the Sulu terrane. Earth Planet Sci Lett 155(1–2):113–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nordic Volcanological Center, Institute of Earth SciencesUniversity of IcelandReykjavíkIceland
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  4. 4.Department of GeoscienceAarhus UniversityÅrhus CDenmark
  5. 5.Natural History Museum of DenmarkUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagen KDenmark

Personalised recommendations