Advertisement

Cordierite formation during the experimental reaction of plagioclase with Mg-rich aqueous solutions

  • J. HövelmannEmail author
  • H. Austrheim
  • A. Putnis
Original Paper

Abstract

The reaction between plagioclase (labradorite and oligoclase) and Mg-rich aqueous solutions was studied experimentally at hydrothermal conditions (600–700 °C, 2 kbar). During the experiments, plagioclase grains were readily converted to cordierite and quartz within 4 days. The cordierite crystals had well-developed polyhedral shapes, but showed skeletal internal morphologies suggesting that the initial growth occurred fast under high-driving-force conditions. In pure MgCl2 solutions (0.5–5 M), plagioclase dissolution and cordierite precipitation were spatially uncoupled indicating that Al was to some extent mobile in the fluid. Cordierite crystals formed at 700 °C showed orthorhombic symmetry, whereas those formed at 600 °C dominantly persisted in the metastable hexagonal form suggesting a strong increase in Al, Si ordering speed between 600 and 700 °C. The thermodynamic evolution of the fluid–solid system ultimately resulted in stabilization of Ca-rich plagioclase as demonstrated by partial anorthitization of unreacted plagioclase grains. Cordierite was also observed to form when Mg was added to a potentially albitizing Na-silicate-bearing solution. In that case, cordierite precipitation appeared to be more closely coupled to plagioclase dissolution, and secondary alteration of remnant plagioclase grains did not occur most likely due to armoring of the plagioclase by the cordierite overgrowth. The fast reaction rates observed in our experimental study have potential implications for Mg-metasomatism as a rock-forming process.

Keywords

Cordierite Mg-metasomatism Anorthitization Al,Si ordering Experimental petrology Cordierite-orthoamphibole rocks 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the EU Initial Training Network Delta-Min (Mechanisms of Mineral Replacement Reactions) Grant PITN-GA-2008-215360. We thank Muriel Erambert for her assistance at the electron microprobe and Peter Schmid-Beurmann for his help with XRD analyses. We also thank the DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft – German Research Foundation) for financial support for the experimental laboratories at the Institute for Mineralogy, University of Münster. This paper benefited from thoughtful reviews by Kurt Bucher and an anonymous reviewer.

References

  1. Barnes J, Selverstone J, Sharp Z (2004) Interactions between serpentinite devolatilization, metasomatism and strike-slip strain localization during deep-crustal shearing in the Eastern Alps. J Metamorph Geol 22(4):283–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beinlich A, Klemd R, John T, Gao J (2010) Trace-element mobilization during Ca-metasomatism along a major fluid conduit: eclogitization of blueschist as a consequence of fluid-rock interaction. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74(6):1892–1922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berndt ME, Seyfried WE Jr (1993) Calcium and sodium exchange during hydrothermal alteration of calcic plagioclase at 400° C and 400 bars. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57(18):4445–4451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berndt ME, Seyfried WE Jr, Janecky DR (1989) Plagioclase and epidote buffering of cation ratios in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids: experimental results in and near the supercritical region. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53(9):2283–2300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bugge JAW (1943) Geological and petrographical investigations in the Kongberg-Bamble formation. Norsk Geol Unders 160:1–150Google Scholar
  6. Chinner GA, Fox JS (1974) Origin of cordierite-anthophyllite rocks in Lands End Aureole. Geol Mag 111(5):397–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cho M, Fawcett J (1986) Morphologies and growth mechanisms of synthetic Mg-chlorite and cordierite. Am Mineral 71:78–84Google Scholar
  8. Clark C, Mumm AS, Faure K (2005) Timing and nature of fluid flow and alteration during Mesoproterozoic shear zone formation, Olary Domain. South Australia. J Metamorph Geol 23(3):147–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dalstra H, Guedes S (2004) Giant hydrothermal hematite deposits with Mg-Fe metasomatism: a comparison of the Carajás, Hamersley, and other iron ores. Econ Geol 99(8):1793–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Demény A, Sharp ZD, Pfeifer H-R (1997) Mg-metasomatism and formation conditions of Mg-chlorite-muscovite-quartzphyllites (leucophyllites) of the Eastern Alps (W. Hungary) and their relations to Alpine whiteschists. Contrib Mineral Petrol 128(2–3):247–260Google Scholar
  11. Engvik AK, Austrheim H (2010) Formation of sapphirine and corundum in scapolitised and Mg-metasomatised gabbro. Terra Nova 22(3):166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Engvik AK, Putnis A, Gerald JDF, Austrheim H (2008) Albitization of granitic rocks: the mechanism of replacement of oligoclase by albite. Can Mineral 46:1401–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Engvik AK, Ihlen PM, Austrheim H (2014) Characterisation of Na-metasomatism in the Sveconorwegian Bamble Sector of South Norway. Geosci Front 5(5):659–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eskola P (1914) Petrology of the Orijarvi Region, SW Finland. Bull Comm Geol Finl 40:1–274Google Scholar
  15. Ferrando S (2012) Mg-metasomatism of metagranitoids from the Alps: genesis and possible tectonic scenarios. Terra Nova 24(6):423–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ferrando S, Frezzotti M, Petrelli M, Compagnoni R (2009) Metasomatism of continental crust during subduction: the UHP whiteschists from the Southern Dora-Maira Massif (Italian Western Alps). J Metamorph Geol 27(9):739–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Floyd PA (1965) Metasomatic hornfelses of lands end aureole at tater-du cornwall. J Petrol 6(2):223–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gebauer D, Schertl H-P, Brix M, Schreyer W (1997) 35 Ma old ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and evidence for very rapid exhumation in the Dora Maira Massif. Western Alps. Lithos 41(1):5–24Google Scholar
  19. Hangx SJT, Spiers CJ (2009) Reaction of plagioclase feldspars with CO2 under hydrothermal conditions. Chem Geol 265(1–2):88–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Helgeson HC, Kirkham DH, Flowers GC (1981) Theoretical prediction of the thermodynamic behavior of aqueous electrolytes by high pressures and temperatures; IV, calculation of activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients, and apparent molal and standard and relative partial molal properties to 600 degrees C and 5kb. Am J Sci 281(10):1249–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoffer E, Grant J (1980) Experimental investigation of the formation of cordierite-orthopyroxene parageneses in pelitic rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 73(1):15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hövelmann J, Putnis A, Geisler T, Schmidt BC, Golla-Schindler U (2010) The replacement of plagioclase feldspars by albite: observations from hydrothermal experiments. Contrib Mineral Petrol 159(1):43–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. John T, Schenk V (2003) Partial eclogitisation of gabbroic rocks in a late Precambrian subduction zone (Zambia): prograde metamorphism triggered by fluid infiltration. Contrib Mineral Petrol 146(2):174–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnson JW, Oelkers EH, Helgeson HC (1992) SUPCRT92: a software package for calculating the standard molal thermodynamic properties of minerals, gases, aqueous species, and reactions from 1 to 5000 bar and 0 to 1000 C. Comput Geosci 18(7):899–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jöns N, Schenk V (2004) Petrology of whiteschists and associated rocks at Mautia Hill (Tanzania): fluid infiltration during high-grade metamorphism? J Petrol 45(10):1959–1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lal RK, Moorhouse WW (1969) Cordierite–gedrite rocks and associated gneisses of Fishtail Lake, Harcourt Township. Ontario. Can J Earth Sci 6(1):145–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Manning CE (1997) Coupled reaction and flow in subduction zones: silica metasomatism in the mantle wedge. In: Jamtveit B, Yardley BWD (eds) Fluid flow and transport in rocks. Springer, Berlin, pp 139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McMillan P, Putnis A, Carpenter M (1984) A raman spectroscopic study of Al–Si ordering in synthetic magnesium cordierite. Phys Chem Miner 10(6):256–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miyashiro A (1957) Cordierite-indialite relations. Am J Sci 255(1):43–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Munz IA (1990) Whiteschists and orthoamphibole-cordierite rocks and the P-T-t path of the modum complex, south Norway. Lithos 24(3):181–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Munz IA, Brandvoll Ø, Haug T, Iden K, Smeets R, Kihle J, Johansen H (2012) Mechanisms and rates of plagioclase carbonation reactions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 77:27–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nijland TG, Harlov DE, Andersen T (2014) The bamble sector, south Norway: a review. Geosci Front 5(5):635–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Norberg N, Neusser G, Wirth R, Harlov D (2011) Microstructural evolution during experimental albitization of K-rich alkali feldspar. Contrib Mineral Petrol 162(3):531–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oliver NHS, Rawling TJ, Cartwright I, Pearson PJ (1994) High-temperature fluid-rock interaction and scapolitization in an extension-related hydrothermal system, Mary-Kathleen. Australia. J Petrol 35(6):1455–1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. O’Neil JR, Taylor HP (1967) The oxygen isotope and cation exchange chemistry of feldspars. Am Mineral 52:1414–1437Google Scholar
  36. Orville P (1972) Plagioclase cation exchange equilibria with aqueous chloride solution: results at 700°C and 2000 bars in the presence of quartz. Am J Sci 272:234–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pan YM, Fleet ME (1995) Geochemistry and origin of cordierite-orthoamphibole gneiss and associated rocks at an archean volcanogenic massive sulfide camp: manitouwadge, Ontario. Canada. Precambrian Re. 74(1–2):73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Peck WH, Valley JW (2000) Genesis of cordierite-gedrite gneisses, central metasedimentary belt boundary thrust zone, Grenville province, Ontario, Canada. Can Mineral 38:511–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Poon WCK, Punis A, Salje E (1990) Structural states of Mg cordierite. IV. Raman spectroscopy and local order parameter behaviour. J Phys-Condens Mat 2(30):6361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Putnis A (2009) Mineral replacement reactions. Rev Mineral Geochem 70:87–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Putnis A, Bish DL (1983) The mechanism and kinetics of Al, Si ordering in Mg-cordierite. Am Mineral 68:60–65Google Scholar
  42. Putnis A, Holland T (1986) Sector trilling in cordierite and equilibrium overstepping in metamorphism. Contrib Mineral Petrol 93(2):265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Putnis A, Putnis CV (2007) The mechanism of reequilibration of solids in the presence of a fluid phase. J Solid State Chem 180(5):1783–1786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Putnis A, Salje E, Redfern SA, Fyfe CA, Strobl H (1987) Structural states of Mg-cordierite I: order parameters from synchrotron X-ray and NMR data. Phys Chem Miner 14(5):446–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Roddy MS, Reynolds SJ, Smith BM, Ruiz J (1988) K-metasomatism and detachment-related mineralization, Harcuvar Mountains. Arizona. Geol Soc Am Bull 100(10):1627–1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rubenach M, Lewthwaite K (2002) Metasomatic albitites and related biotite-rich schists from a low-pressure polymetamorphic terrane, Snake Creek Anticline, Mount Isa Inlier, north-eastern Australia: microstructures and P–T–d paths. J Metamorph Geol 20(1):191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schliestedt M, Johannes W (1990) Cation exchange equilibria between plagioclase and aqueous chloride solution at 600 to 700 degree C and 2 to 5 kbar. Eur J Mineral 2(3):283–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schreyer W (1977) Whiteschists: their compositions and pressure-temperature regimes based on experimental, field, and petrographic evidence. Tectonophysics 43(1–2):127–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Schreyer W, Schairer J (1961) Compositions and structural states of anhydrous Mg-cordierites: a re-investigation of the central part of the system MgO–Al2O3–SiO2. J Petrol 2(3):324–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schreyer W, Yoder H (1964) The system Mg-cordierite-H2O and related rocks. Neues Jahrb Mineral Abh 101:271–342Google Scholar
  51. Seyfried WE, Berndt ME, Seewald JS (1988) Hydrothermal alteration processes at mid-ocean ridges: constraints from diabase alteration experiments, hot spring fluids and composition of the oceanic crust. Can Mineral 26(3):787–804Google Scholar
  52. Shmulovich K, Graham C (2008) Plagioclase-aqueous solution equilibrium: concentration dependence. Petrology 16(2):177–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smith MS, Dymek RF, Schneiderman JS (1992) Implications of trace-element geochemistry for the origin of cordierite-orthoamphibole rocks from Orijarvi. SW Finland. J Geol 100(5):545–559Google Scholar
  54. Sunagawa I (2005) Crystals: growth, morphology, and perfection. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Vallance TG (1967) Mafic rock alteration and isochemical development of some cordierite-anthophyllite rocks. J Petrol 8(1):84–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vinograd V, Perchuk L, Gerya T, Putnis A, Winkler B, Gale J (2007) Order/disorder phase transition in cordierite and its possible relationship to the development of symplectite reaction textures in granulites. Petrology 15(5):427–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Weisenberger T, Bucher K (2011) Mass transfer and porosity evolution during low temperature water–rock interaction in gneisses of the simano nappe: arvigo, Val Calanca. Swiss Alps. Contrib Mineral Petrol 162(1):61–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Xia F, Brugger J, Chen G, Ngothai Y, O’Neill B, Putnis A, Pring A (2009) Mechanism and kinetics of pseudomorphic mineral replacement reactions: a case study of the replacement of pentlandite by violarite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73(7):1945–1969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zeck H (1972) Transformation trillings in cordierite. J Petrol 13(3):367–380Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für MineralogieWestfälische Wilhelms-Universität MünsterMünsterGermany
  2. 2.Physics of Geological Processes (PGP)University of OsloOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations