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Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 166, Issue 5, pp 1305–1321 | Cite as

Small-scale coexistence of island-arc- and enriched-MORB-type basalts in the central Vanuatu arc

  • Fanny SorbadereEmail author
  • Pierre Schiano
  • Nicole Métrich
  • Antonella Bertagnini
Original Paper

Abstract

We report here major, trace element and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic data for a new set of basaltic lavas and melt inclusions hosted in Mg-rich olivines (Fo86–91) from Mota Lava, in the Banks islands of the Vanuatu island arc. The results reveal the small-scale coexistence of typical island-arc basalts (IAB) and a distinct type of Nb-enriched basalts (NEB) characterized by primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns without high-field-strength element (HFSE) depletion. The IAB show trace element patterns with prominent negative HFSE anomalies acquired during melting of mantle sources enriched with slab-derived, H2O-rich components during subduction. In contrast, the NEB display trace element features that compare favourably with enriched-mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) and the most enriched basalts from the Vanuatu back-arc troughs. Both their trace element and Nd–Sr isotopic compositions require partial melting of an enriched-MORB-type mantle source, almost negligibly contaminated by slab-derived fluids (~0.2 wt%). The coexistence of these two distinct types of primitive magma, at the scale of one volcanic island and within a relatively short span of time, would reflect a heterogeneous mantle source and/or tapping of distinct mantle sources. Direct ascent of such distinct magmas could be favoured by the extensive tectonic setting of Mota Lava Island, allowing decompression melting and sampling of variable mantle sources. Significantly, this island is located at the junction of the N–S back-arc troughs and the E–W Hazel Home extensional zone, where the plate motion diverges in both direction and rate. More broadly, this study indicates that crustal faulting in arc contexts would permit basaltic magmas to reach Earth’s surface, while preserving the geochemical heterogeneity of their mantle sources.

Keywords

Vanuatu arc Island-arc basalts Nb-enriched basalts Mantle source 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank J-L Devidal for assistance with the electron microprobe and LA-ICP-MS analyses, C. Bosq for providing clean-laboratory facilities, D. Auclair for TIMS and H. Rizo for MC-ICP-MS analyses. We also thanks C. Macpherson and an anonymous reviewer for their constructive reviews, and C. Pin for insightful discussion, which has improved our manuscript. This work was supported by the ANR contract ANR-06-CATT-02 Arc-Vanuatu and ST-INSU-2010 program. This is Laboratory of Excellence ClerVolc contribution n° 69.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fanny Sorbadere
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Pierre Schiano
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nicole Métrich
    • 4
    • 5
  • Antonella Bertagnini
    • 5
  1. 1.Laboratoire Magmas et VolcansClermont Université, Université Blaise PascalClermont-FerrandFrance
  2. 2.CNRS, UMR 6524, LMVClermont-FerrandFrance
  3. 3.IRD, R 163, LMVClermont-FerrandFrance
  4. 4.Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Sorbonne Paris-citéUniversité Paris Diderot, UMR 7154 CNRSParisFrance
  5. 5.Sezione di PisaIstituto Nazionale di Geofisica e VulcanologiaPisaItaly

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