Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 166, Issue 2, pp 525–543 | Cite as

Early Palaeozoic deep subduction of continental crust in the Kyrgyz North Tianshan: evidence from Lu–Hf garnet geochronology and petrology of mafic dikes

  • Yamirka Rojas-AgramonteEmail author
  • Daniel Herwartz
  • Antonio García-Casco
  • Alfred Kröner
  • Dmitriy V. Alexeiev
  • Reiner Klemd
  • Stephan Buhre
  • Matthias Barth
Original Paper


High-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite-bearing metamorphic assemblages in the North Tianshan of Kyrgyzstan are known from the Aktyuz and Makbal areas, where eclogites and garnet amphibolites are associated with continental rocks such as granitoid gneisses in Aktyuz and shallow-water clastic (passive margin?) metasediments in Makbal. We present the first Lu–Hf isotope data for an eclogite and two garnet amphibolite samples from the two metamorphic terranes which, combined with petrological analysis, tightly constrain the age of high-pressure metamorphism in the Kyrgyz North Tianshan. A five-point isochron for an Aktyuz eclogite sample provides a Lu–Hf age of 474.3 ± 2.2 Ma, and a four-point isochron on a Makbal sample corresponds to 470.1 ± 2.5 Ma. A prograde, subduction-related path is inferred for both samples with peak P–T conditions ranging from 1.4 to 1.6 GPa and 610–620 °C. A further Makbal sample provided a significantly older Lu–Hf age of 486 ± 5.4 Ma, most likely due to late alteration in the sample (late addition of unradiogenic Hf). We conclude that garnet growth in all three samples occurred around ca. 474 Ma and that these rocks likely experienced UHP metamorphism contemporaneously. Our results support previous geochronological evidence for an Early Ordovician collision belt in the North Tianshan and allow refinement of a tectonic model involving subduction of thinned continental crust to considerable depth along the margin of a small microcontinent.


Lu–Hf Mafic dike Aktyuz Makbal Northern Tianshan Kyrgyzstan 



This study was supported by the German Science Foundation (DFG grants RO4174/1-2 to Y. R.-A. and KR590/90-1 to A. K.) and RFBR Grants 09-05-91331, 11-05-91332 and 13-05-91151 to D.V. A. We thank associate editor Prof. Chris Ballhaus and reviewer Dr. Matthijs A. Smit for their positive and constructive review. We also thank A. Bakirov, K, Sakiev, D. Konopelko, K. Degtyarev and A. Ryazantsev for discussion and important comments and A. K. Rybin at the Research Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Bishkek for logistic support and hospitality during fieldwork. This is a contribution to IGCP Project 592 ‘Continental construction in Central Asia’.

Supplementary material

410_2013_889_MOESM1_ESM.doc (41 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 41 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM2_ESM.doc (47 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 47 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM3_ESM.tif (17.6 mb)
Fig. S1 Textural and compositional features of garnet from sample KG8. a, b, c and d Distribution of Xalm, Xsps, Xprp and Xgrs, respectively. e and f Composition profiles extracted from the quantified maps. g and h Triangular diagrams showing spot analyses and the quantified pixels of garnet (shown in figures a-d) expressed as absolute frequency colours. The maps and diagrams were calculated using a spot analysis of garnet as internal standard. (TIFF 17989 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM4_ESM.tif (19.6 mb)
Supplementary material 4 (TIFF 20116 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM5_ESM.tif (21.3 mb)
Fig. S2 Textural and compositional features of omphacite from sample KG8. a, b, c and d Distribution of Al, Ca, Mg apfu and Mg#, respectively. e and f Triangular diagrams showing spot analyses and the quantified pixels of omphacite (shown in figures a-d) expressed as absolute frequency colors. Figures a, b, c, d and f were calculated using a spot analysis of omphacite as internal standard. The classification scheme of figure e is from Morimoto et al. (1988). In figure f the spot analyses are plotted as Fe=Fe2+total and Fe=Fe2+ (calculated by stoichimetry) in order to compare with the quantified composition of the maps. (TIFF 21773 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM6_ESM.tif (17.8 mb)
Fig. S3 Textural and compositional features of amphibole from sample KG8. a, b, c and d Distribution of Al, Ca, Mg (atoms pfu) and Mg# (Fe = Fetot), respectively. e Composition of amphibole plotted in the classification scheme of Leake et al. (1997). The textural (regular) and compositional (italics) types of amphibole are indicated. Amphibole compositions are classified as calcic and sodic-calcic, as indicated by the colour code. f, g, h and i. Composition of amphibole plotted in the diagrams of Laird and Albee (1981). Figures a-d were calculated using a spot analysis of amphibole as internal standard. Note the complex growth-composition trend suggesting a complex P-T path, indicated by the black arrows in figure f (see text for details). (TIFF 18206 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM7_ESM.tif (19.6 mb)
Supplementary material 7 (TIFF 20066 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM8_ESM.tif (19.2 mb)
Fig. S4 Textural and compositional features of plagioclase from samples KG8 and KG79. a and b Distribution of Xan in scanned areas 3 and 2, respectively. c Composition of plagioclase. The textural types of plagioclase are indicated. Figures a and b were calculated using a spot analysis of plagioclase as internal standard. (TIFF 19669 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM9_ESM.tif (20.2 mb)
Fig. S5 a, b, c, d, and e Maps of Al-Kα, Mg-Kα, Ti-Kα, Fe-Kα and Mn-Kα showing the textural and compositional features of epidote, chlorite, rutile, ilmenite and titanite from sample KG8. f Composition of epidote. g and h Composition of chlorite. i Composition of ilmenite. (TIFF 20639 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM10_ESM.tif (17.9 mb)
Supplementary material 10 (TIFF 18285 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM11_ESM.tif (18 mb)
Fig. S6 Textural and compositional features of garnet from sample KG79a. a Al-Kα image of the scanned area that shows the replacement of garnet by Al-rich amphibole (after Grt1 and Grt2), which nicely depicts the former idiomorphic habit of garnet. b and c Distribution of Xsps and Xprp. d Representative core-to-rim composition profile. e and f Triangular diagrams showing spot analyses and the quantified pixels of garnet (i.e., those shown in figures b and c) expressed as absolute frequency colours. Figures b, c, e and f were calculated using a spot analysis of garnet as internal standard. (TIFF 18438 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM12_ESM.tif (19.6 mb)
Supplementary material 12 (TIFF 20052 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM13_ESM.tif (16.2 mb)
Fig. S7 Textural and compositional features of amphibole from sample KG79a. a Sketch showing the various stages of amphibole growth (cores and rims of matrix grains and replacements after garnet). This image was calculated using the atomic proportions of Ca, Al and Fe+Mn+Mg. b, c and d Distribution of atomic ratios Al/(Al+Fe+Mn+Mg), Ca/(Ca+Fe+Mn+Mg) and Mg# (Fe = Fetot), respectively. e Composition of amphibole plotted in the classification scheme of Leake et al. (1997). The textural (regular) and compositional (italics) types of amphibole are indicated. All types of amphibole are classified as calcic. f, g, h and i. Composition of amphibole plotted in the diagrams of Laird and Albee (1981). Note the increase in Na(B) from core-to-rim of matrix grains, recording increase in pressure, and the ensuing decrease in Na(B) and increase in Al in the replacements after garnet, indicating decrease in pressure and increase in temperature. Figures b-d were calculated using a spot analysis of amphibole as internal standard. (TIFF 16634 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM14_ESM.tif (19.7 mb)
Supplementary material 14 (TIFF 20209 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM15_ESM.tif (17.5 mb)
Fig. S8 a, b, c, d, and e Maps of Al-Kα, Fe-Kα, Mg-Kα, K-Kα and Ti-Kα showing the textural and compositional features of epidote, chlorite, biotite, rutile, ilmenite and titanite, respectively, from sample KG79a. See figure 5 for composition of these phases. (TIFF 17926 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM16_ESM.tif (16.4 mb)
Fig. S9 Textural and compositional features of garnet from sample KG79. a, b and c Distribution of Xgrs, Xsps and Mg#, respectively. d Representative core-to-rim composition profile. e and f Triangular diagrams showing spot analyses and the quantified pixels of garnet (shown in figures a-c) expressed as absolute frequency colours. All figures except d calculated using a spot analysis of garnet as internal standard. (TIFF 16778 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM17_ESM.tif (14.1 mb)
Supplementary material 17 (TIFF 14420 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM18_ESM.tif (16 mb)
Fig. S10 Textural and compositional features of amphibole from sample KG79. a, b, c and d Distribution of atomic ratios 100*Al/(Al+Si), Al/(Al+Fe+Mn+Mg), Ca/(Ca+Fe+Mn+Mg) and Mg# (Fe = Fetot), respectively. e Composition of amphibole plotted in the classification scheme of Leake et al. (1997). The textural (regular) and compositional (italics) types of amphibole are indicated. All types of amphibole are classified as calcic. f, g, h and i. Composition of amphibole plotted in the diagrams of Laird and Albee (1981). Note the increase in Na(B), recording increase in pressure, and the ensuing decrease in Na(B) and increase in Al, indicating decrease in pressure and increase in temperature. (TIFF 16382 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM19_ESM.tif (19.2 mb)
Supplementary material 19 (TIFF 19626 kb)
410_2013_889_MOESM20_ESM.tif (18.7 mb)
Fig. S11 a, b, c, d, and e Maps of Al-Kα, Fe-Kα, Mg-Kα, K-Kα and Ti-Kα showing the textural and compositional features of epidote, chlorite, biotite, paragonite, ilmenite, titanite, and hematite from sample KG79, respectively. See figure 5 for composition of these phases. (TIFF 19109 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yamirka Rojas-Agramonte
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Daniel Herwartz
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Antonio García-Casco
    • 6
  • Alfred Kröner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dmitriy V. Alexeiev
    • 7
  • Reiner Klemd
    • 8
  • Stephan Buhre
    • 1
  • Matthias Barth
    • 1
  1. 1.Beijing SHRIMP Centre, Institute of GeologyChinese Academy of Geological SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institut für GeowissenschaftenJohannes Gutenberg-UniversitätMainzGermany
  3. 3.Steinmann-InstitutUniversität BonnBonnGermany
  4. 4.Institut für Geologie und MineralogieUniversität zu KölnKölnGermany
  5. 5.Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Abteilung IsotopengeologieGeorg-August-UniversitätGöttingenGermany
  6. 6.Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la TierraUniversidad de Granada-CSICGranadaSpain
  7. 7.Geological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  8. 8.GeoZentrum NordbayernUniversität Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany

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