Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 166, Issue 1, pp 211–234 | Cite as

TiO2 exsolution from garnet by open-system precipitation: evidence from crystallographic and shape preferred orientation of rutile inclusions

  • Alexander Proyer
  • Gerlinde Habler
  • Rainer Abart
  • Richard Wirth
  • Kurt Krenn
  • Georg Hoinkes
Original Paper

Abstract

We investigated rutile needles with a clear shape preferred orientation in garnet from (ultra) high-pressure metapelites from the Kimi Complex of the Greek Rhodope by electron microprobe, electron backscatter diffraction and TEM techniques. A definite though complex crystallographic orientation relationship between the garnet host and rutile was identified in that Rt[001] is either parallel to Grt<111> or describes cones with opening angle 27.6° around Grt<111>. Each Rt[001] small circle representing a cone on the pole figure displays six maxima in the density plots. This evidence together with microchemical observations in TEM, when compared to various possible mechanisms of formation, corroborates a precipitate origin. A review of exchange vectors for Ti substitution in garnet indicates that rutile formation from garnet cannot occur in a closed system. It requires that components are exchanged between the garnet interior and the rock matrix by solid-state diffusion, a process we refer to as “open-system precipitation” (OSP). The kinetically most feasible reaction of this type will dominate the overall process. The perhaps most efficient reaction involves internal oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ and transfer from the dodecahedral to the octahedral site just vacated by \( {\text{Ti}}^{ 4+ }: 6\,{\text{M}}^{ 2+ }_{ 3} {\text{TiAl}}\left[ {{\text{AlSi}}_{ 2} } \right]{\text{O}}_{ 1 2} + 6\,{\text{M}}^{ 2+ }_{ 2, 5} {\text{TiAlSi}}_{ 3} {\text{O}}_{ 1 2} = 10\,{\text{M}}^{ 2+ }_{ 3.0} {\text{Al}}_{ 1. 8} {\text{Fe}}_{0. 2} {\text{Si}}_{ 3} {\text{O}}_{ 1 2} + {\text{M}}^{2+} + 2 {\text{e}}^{-} + 1 2\,{\text{TiO}}_{ 2} . \) OSP is likely to occur at conditions where the transition of natural systems to open-system behaviour becomes apparent, as in the granulite and high-temperature eclogite facies.

Keywords

Exsolution Rutile needles Open-system precipitation Ultrahigh-pressure Rhodope 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Proyer
    • 1
  • Gerlinde Habler
    • 2
  • Rainer Abart
    • 2
  • Richard Wirth
    • 3
  • Kurt Krenn
    • 1
  • Georg Hoinkes
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Earth SciencesUniversity of GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Department of Lithospheric ResearchUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam, Am TelegrafenbergPotsdamGermany

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