Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 163, Issue 5, pp 861–876 | Cite as

A comparative study of melt-rock reactions in the mantle: laboratory dissolution experiments and geological field observations

Original Paper

Abstract

Systematic variations in mineralogy and chemical composition across dunite-harzburgite (DH) and dunite-harzburgite-lherzolite (DHL) sequences in the mantle sections of ophiolites have been widely observed. The compositional variations are due to melt-rock reactions as basaltic melts travel through mantle peridotite, and may be key attributes to understanding melting and melt transport processes in the mantle. In order to better understand melt-rock reactions in the mantle, we conducted laboratory dissolution experiments by juxtaposing a spinel lherzolite against an alkali basalt or a mid-ocean ridge basalt. The charges were run at 1 GPa and either 1,300°C or 1,320°C for 8–28 h. Afterward, the charges were slowly cooled to 1,200°C and 1 GPa, which was maintained for at least 24 h to promote in situ crystallization of interstitial melts. Cooling allowed for better characterization of the mineralogy and mineral compositional trends produced and observed from melt-rock reactions. Dissolution of lherzolite in basaltic melts with cooling results in a clinopyroxene-bearing DHL sequence, in contrast to sequences observed in previously reported isothermal-isobaric dissolution experiments, but similar to those observed in the mantle sections of ophiolites. Compositional variations in minerals in the experimental charges follow similar melt-rock trends suggested by the field observations, including traverses across DH and DHL sequences from mantle sections of ophiolites as well as clinopyroxene and olivine from clinopyroxenite, dunite, and wehrlite dikes and xenoliths. These chemical variations are controlled by the composition of reacting melt, mineralogy and composition of host peridotite, and grain-scale processes that occur at various stages of melt-peridotite reaction. We suggest that laboratory dissolution experiments are a robust model to natural melt-rock reaction processes and that clinopyroxene in replacive dunites in the mantle sections of ophiolites is genetically linked to clinopyroxene in cumulate dunite and pyroxenites through melt transport and melt-rock reaction processes in the mantle.

Keywords

Melt-rock reaction Dunite Harzburgite Lherzolite Reactive dissolution Dissolution Precipitation Reprecipitation Ophiolite Pyroxenite Megacryst Mineral compositional variation 

Supplementary material

410_2011_703_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (13.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 9388 kb)

References

  1. Arai S (1994) Characterization of spinel peridotite by olivine-spinel compositional relationships: review and interpretation. Chem Geol 113:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asimow PD, Stolper EM (1999) Steady-state mantle-melt interactions in one dimension: I. Equilibrium transport and melt focusing. J Petrol 40:475–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck AR, Morgan ZT, Liang Y, Hess PC (2006) Dunite channels as viable pathways for mare basalt transport in the deep lunar mantle. Geophys Res Lett 33:L01202. doi:10.1029/2005GL024008
  4. Boudier F, Nicolas A (1977) Structural controls on partial melting in the Lanzo peridotites. In: Dick HJB (ed) Magma genesis, vol 96. Bull Oregon Department of Geology Mining Industries, pp 63–78Google Scholar
  5. Boudier F, Nicolas A (1985) Harzburgite and lherzolite subtypes in ophiolitic and oceanic environments. Earth Planet Sci Lett 76:84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Braun MG (2004) Petrologic and microstructural constraints on focused melt transport in dunites and the rheology of the shallow mantle. PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, p 212Google Scholar
  7. Chen C, Presnall DC, Stern RJ (1992) Petrogenesis of ultramafic xenoliths from the 1,800 Kaupulehu flow, Hualalai Volcano, Hawaii. J Petrol 33:163–202Google Scholar
  8. Daines MJ, Kohlstedt DL (1994) The transition from porous to channelized flow due to melt/rock reaction during melt migration. Geophys Res Lett 21:145–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dick HJB, Bullen T (1984) Chromian spinel as a petrogenetic indicator in abyssal and alpine-type peridotites and spatially associated lavas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 86:54–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Downes H (2007) Origin and significance of spinel and garnet pyroxenites in the shallow lithospheric mantle: ultramafic massifs in orogenic belts in Western Europe and NW Africa. Lithos 99:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ionov DA, Chanefo I, Bodinier J (2005) Origin of Fe-rich lherzolites and wehrlites from Tok, SE Siberia by reactive melt percolation in refractory mantle peridotites. Contrib Mineral Petrol 150:335–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kamenetsky VS, Crawford AJ, Meffre S (2001) Factors controlling chemistry of magmatic spinel: an empirical study of associated olivine, Cr-spinel and melt inclusions from primitive rocks. J Petrol 42:655–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kelemen PB (1990) Reaction between ultramafic rock and fractionating basaltic magma I. Phase relations, the origin of calcalkaline magma series, and the formation of discordant dunite. J Petrol 31:51–98Google Scholar
  14. Kelemen PB (2009) The origin of the land under the sea. Sci Am 300:52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kelemen PB, Dick HJB, Quick JE (1992) Formation of harzburgite by pervasive melt/rock reaction in the upper mantle. Nature 358:635–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kelemen PB, Shimizu N, Salters VJM (1995a) Extraction of mid-ocean-ridge basalt from the upwelling mantle by focused flow of melt in dunite channels. Nature 375:747–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kelemen PB, Whitehead JA, Anaronov E, Jordahl KA (1995b) Experiments on flow focusing in soluble porous media, with applications to melt extraction from the mantle. J Geophys Res 100:475–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kelemen PB, Hirth G, Shimizu N, Spiegelman M, Dick HJB (1997) A review of melt migration processes in the adiabatically upwelling mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 355:283–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kohlstedt DL, Holtzman BK (2009) Shearing melt out of the earth: an experimentalist’s perspective on the influence of deformation on melt extraction. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 37:561–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kubo K (2002) Dunite formation processes in highly depleted peridotite: case study of the Iwanaidake peridotite, Hokkaido, Japan. J Petrol 43:423–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lambart S, Laporte D, Schiano P (2009) An experimental study of focused magma transport and basalt-peridotite interactions beneath mid-ocean ridges: implications for the generation of primitive MORB compositions. Contrib Mineral Petrol 157:429–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li C, Ripley EM (2010) The relative effects of composition and temperature on olivine-liquid Ni partitioning: statistical deconvolution and implications for petrologic modeling. Chem Geol 275:99–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liang Y (2003) Kinetics of crystal-melt reaction in partially molten silicates: 1. Grain scale processes. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 4:1045. doi:10.1029/2002GC000375
  24. Liang Y (2010) Multicomponent diffusion in molten silicates: theory, experiments, and geological applications. Rev Mineral Geochem 72:409–446. doi:10.2138/rmg.2010.72.9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liang Y, Elthon D (1990) Geochemistry and petrology of spinel lherzolite xenoliths from Xalapasco de La Joya, San Luis Potosi, Mexico: partial melting and mantle metasomatism. J Geophys Res 95:15859–15877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liang Y, Schiemenz A, Hesse M, Parmentier EM, Hesthaven JS (2010) High-porosity channels for melt migration in the mantle: top is the dunite and bottom is the harzburgite and lherzolite. Geophys Res Lett 37:L15306. doi:10.1029/2010GL044162 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lo Cascio M (2008) Kinetics of partial melting and melt-rock reaction in the earth’s mantle. Ph.D. Thesis, Brown University, p 267Google Scholar
  28. Lo Cascio M, Liang Y, Hess P (2004) Grain-scale processes during isothermal-isobaric melting of lherzolite. Geophys Res Lett 31:L16605. doi:10.1029/2004GL020602
  29. Lo Cascio M, Liang Y, Shimizu N, Hess PC (2008) An experimental study of the grain scale processes of peridotite melting: implications for major and trace element distribution during equilibrium and disequilibrium melting. Contrib Mineral Petrol 156:87–102. doi:10.007/s00410-007-0275-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Longhi J (2002) Some phase equilibrium systematics of lherzolite melting: I. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 3. doi:10.1029/2008GC001954
  31. Lundstrom CC (2000) Rapid diffusive infiltration of sodium into partially molten peridotite. Nature 403:527–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lundstrom CC (2003) An experimental investigation of the diffusive infiltration of alkalis into partially molten peridotite: implications for mantle melting processes. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 4:8614. doi:10.1029/2001GC000224 Google Scholar
  33. Lundstrom CC, Chaussidon M, Hsui AT, Kelemen P, Zimmerman M (2005) Observations of Li isotopic variations in the trinity Ophiolite: evidence for isotopic fractionation by diffusion during mantle melting. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:735–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maaløe S (2005) The dunite bodies, websterite and orthopyroxenite dikes of the Leka ophiolite complex. Norway Mineral Petrol 85:163–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Morgan ZT, Liang Y (2003) An experimental and numerical study of the kinetics of harzburgite reactive dissolution with applications to dunite dike formation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 214:59–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Morgan ZT, Liang Y (2005) An experimental study of the kinetics of lherzolite reactive dissolution with applications to melt channel formation. Contrib Mineral Petrol 150:369–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morgan ZT, Liang Y, Kelemen PB (2008) Significance of the composition profiles associated with dunite bodies in the Josephine and Trinity ophiolites. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9:Q07025. doi:10.1029/2008GC001954
  38. Mysen B (2007) Partitioning of calcium, magnesium, and transition metals between olivine and melt governed by the structure of the silicate melt at ambient pressure. Am Mineral 92:844–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nicolas A. (1989) Structures of ophiolites and dynamics of oceanic lithosphere. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p 367Google Scholar
  40. Obata M, Nagahara N (1987) Layering of alpine-type peridotites and the segregation of partial melt in the upper mantle. J Geophys Res 92:3467–3474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Piccardo GB, Müntener O, Zanetti A, Pettke T (2004) Ophiolite peridotites of the Alpine-Apennine system: mantle processes and geodynamic relevance. Int Geol Rev 40:1119–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Piccardo GB, Zanetti A, Müntener O (2006) Melt/peridotite interaction in Southern Lanzo peridotite: field, textural and geochemical evidence. Lithos 94:181–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pickering-Witter J, Johnston AD (2000) The effects of variable bulk composition on the melting systematic of fertile peridotite assemblages. Contrib Mineral Petrol 140:190–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Python M, Ceuleneer G (2003) Nature and distribution of dykes and related melt migration structures in the mantle section of the Oman ophiolite. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 4:8612. doi:10.1029/2002GC000354
  45. Quick JE (1981) The origin and significance of large, tabular dunite bodies in the Trinity peridotite, Northern California. Contrib Mineral Petrol 78:413–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Righter K, Carmichael ISE (1993) Mega-xenocrysts in alkali olivine basalts: fragments of disrupted mantle assemblages. Am Mineral 78:1230–1245Google Scholar
  47. Robinson JAC, Wood BJ, Blundy JD (1998) The beginning of melting of fertile and depleted peridotite at 1.5 GPa. Earth Planet Sci Lett 155:97–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Santos JF, Scharer U, Gil Ibarguchi JI, Girardeau J (2002) Genesis of pyroxenite-rich peridotite at Cabo Ortegal (NW Spain): geochemical and Pb–Sr–Nd isotope data. J Petrol 43:17–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Savelieva GN, Sobolev AV, Batanova VG, Suslov PV, Brügmann G (2008) Structure of melt flow channels in the mantle. Geotectonics 42:430–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schiemenz A, Liang Y, Parmentier EM (2011) A high-order numerical study of reactive dissolution in an upwelling heterogeneous mantle: I. Channelization, channel lithology, and channel geometry. Geophys J Int 186: 641–664. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05065.x
  51. Shaw CSJ, Eyzaguirre J (2000) Origin of megacrysts in the mafic alkaline lavas of the West Eifel volcanic field, Germany. Lithos 50:75–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Suhr G, Hellebrand E, Snow JE, Seck HA, Hofmann AW (2003) Significance of large, refractory dunite bodies in the upper mantle of the Bay of Islands ophiolite. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 4:8605. doi:10.1029/2001GC000277 Google Scholar
  53. Takahashi N (1992) Evidence for melt segregation towards fractures in the Horoman mantle peridotite complex. Nature 359:52–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Takazawa E, Frey FA, Shimizu N, Obata M, Bodinier JL (1992) Geochemical evidence for melt migration and reaction in the upper mantle. Nature 359:55–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Takazawa E, Frey FA, Shimizu N, Obata M (1996) Evolution of the Horoman peridotite (Hokkaido, Japan): implications from pyroxene compositions. Chem Geol 134:3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Takazawa E, Frey FA, Shimizu N, Obata M (2000) Whole rock compositional variations in an upper mantle peridotite (Horoman, Hokkaido, Japan): are they consistent with a partial melting process? Geochim Cosmochim Acta 64:695–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Thacker C, Liang Y, Peng Q, Hess PC (2009) The stability and major element partitioning of ilmenite and armalcolite during lunar cumulate mantle overturn. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:820–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Van den Bleeken G, Muntener O, Ulmer P (2010) Reaction processes between tholeiitic melt and residual peridotite in the uppermost mantle: an experimental study at 0.8 GPa. J Petrol 51:153–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Van den Bleeken G, Muntener O, Ulmer P (2011) Melt variability in percolated peridotite: an experimental study applied to reactive migration of tholeiitic basalt in the upper mantle. Contrib Mineral Petrol 161:921–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Varfalvy V, Hebert R, Bedard JH (1996) Interactions between melt and upper-mantle peridotites in the north arm mountain massif, bay of islands ophiolite, Newfoundland, Canada: implications for the genesis of boninitic and related magmas. Chem Geol 129:71–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wang Z, Gaetani GA (2008) Partitioning of Ni between olivine and siliceous eclogite partial melt: experimental constraints on the mantle source of Hawaiian basalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 107:417–434Google Scholar
  62. Watson EB, Baker DR (1991) Chemical diffusion in magmas: an overview of experimental results and geochemical applications. In: Perchuk LL, Kushiro I (eds) Physical chemistry of magmas. Springer, New York, pp 120–151Google Scholar
  63. Zhou M-F, Robinson PT, Malpas J, Edwards SJ, Qi L (2005) REE and PGE geochemical constraints on the formation of dunites in the Luobusa ophiolite, southern Tibet. J Petrol 46:615–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations