Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 163, Issue 5, pp 789–806 | Cite as

An intercontinental correlation of the mid-Neoproterozoic Eastern Indian tectonic zone: evidence from the gneissic clasts in Elan Bank conglomerate, Kerguelen Plateau

  • Nilanjan Chatterjee
  • Kirsten Nicolaysen
Original Paper


The Kerguelen Plateau is a submarine, Cretaceous Large Igneous Province in the southern Indian Ocean. Drilling on Elan Bank, a western salient of the Kerguelen Plateau, yielded a ~26 m section of fluvial conglomerate intercalated with basalt. Chemical dating of monazite within garnet and matrix monazite in metapelitic clasts from the conglomerate indicates that high-grade metamorphism of the pelitic protolith occurred between 785 ± 12 and 694 ± 18 Ma. A calculated P–T pseudosection indicates that the observed core-to-inner rim compositional zoning in garnet is consistent with P/T decrease from 10.2 kb/760°C to 6.2 kb/560°C. In an Early Cretaceous paleogeographic reconstruction, the Elan Bank drill site is located on a SSW continuation of the Eastern Indian Tectonic Zone (EITZ), a 876–784 Ma, NNE–SSW metamorphic belt with sinistral shear zones in eastern India. The retrograde P–T path of the Elan Bank metapelitic clast overlaps with that of the EITZ metapelite, and the Elan Bank monazite chemical dates and previously determined 824–675 Ma U–Pb isotope monazite dates by the TIMS method are remarkably similar to the monazite chemical dates from the EITZ metapelites and high-grade metamorphic rocks from the eastern margin of the Eastern Ghats Belt. Based on the demonstrable affinity of metamorphic, geochronologic, and spatial data, this study concludes that the EITZ was likely a continuous, ~1,800–km-long tectono-metamorphic belt in the Rodinia supercontinent stretching from eastern India through the Eastern Ghats to the basement of Elan Bank and probably to the Rayner Complex of East Antarctica.


Elan bank Kerguelen plateau Eastern Indian tectonic zone Metapelite Monazite chemical dating Mid-Neoproterozoic metamorphism 



We gratefully acknowledge the constructive comments from Ingo Braun and two anonymous reviewers during peer review, and informal discussions with Fred Frey that greatly improved the presentation of the manuscript. This research used samples provided by the ODP. The ODP was sponsored by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and participating countries under management of Joint Oceanographic Institutions Inc. Research by KN was supported by a grant from the Joint Oceanographic Institutions US Science Support Program, and KN thanks Michael Jercinovic at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, for assistance during the acquisition of the chemical dates at that facility.

Supplementary material

410_2011_699_MOESM1_ESM.eps (2 mb)
Fig. A1 Comparison of silicate mineral compositions from the Elan Bank metamorphic clasts and the northern EITZ metapelites. Solid symbols: Elan Bank (this study, and N01: Nicolaysen 2001), open symbols: northern EITZ (Chatterjee et al. 2010). Supplementary material 1 (EPS 2002 kb)
410_2011_699_MOESM2_ESM.tif (19.4 mb)
Fig. A2 Rim-to-rim variation in pyrope (Prp), grossular (Grs), almandine (Alm), and spessartine (Sps) contents (mole %) in garnet porphyroblasts in northern EITZ metapelite samples (a) GR34 and (b) DM112 (see Chatterjee et al. 2010). These zoning patterns are similar to the zoning patterns of garnet in the Elan Bank metapelitic clast shown in Fig. 5. Supplementary material 2 (TIFF 19841 kb)


  1. Armstrong JT (1995) CITZAF—A package for correction programs for the quantitative electron microbeam x-ray analysis of thick polished materials, thin-films and particles. Microbeam Anal 4:177–200Google Scholar
  2. Asami M, Suzuki K, Grew ES (2005) Monazite and zircon dating by the chemical Th–U–total Pb isochron method (CHIME) from Alasheyev Bight to the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica: a reconnaissance study of the Mozambique suture in Eastern Queen Maud Land. J Geol 113:59–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker JJ, Sandwell DT, SmithWHF BraudJ, Binder B, Depner J, Fabre D, Factor J, Ingalls S, Kim S-H, Ladner R, Marks K, Nelson S, Pharaoh A, Trimmer R, Von Rosenberg J, Wallace G, Weatherall P (2009) Global bathymetry and elevation data at 30 arc seconds resolution: SRTM30_PLUS. Mar Geod 32:355–371. doi: 10.1080/01490410903297766 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Black LP, Harley SL, Sun SS, McCulloch MT (1987) The Rayner complex of East Antarctica: complex isotopic systematics within a Proterozoic mobile belt. J Metamorph Geol 5:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borisova I, Coffin MF, Moore A, Sayers J, Symonds P, Teliatnikov I (2000) Volcanostratigraphy of the Elan Bank (Kerguelen Plateau) and implication for the regional tectonics. EOS Trans AGU 81:S431Google Scholar
  6. Chakrabarti R, Basu AR, Bandyopadhyay PK, Zou H (2010) Age and origin of the Chilka anorthosites, Eastern Ghats, India: implications for massif anorthosite petrogenesis and break-up of Rodinia. In: Ray J, Sen G, Ghose B (eds) Topics in igneous petrology: a tribute to Professor Mihir K. Bose. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 355–382Google Scholar
  7. Charvis P, Operto S, Lesne O, Royer JY (1997) Velocity structure of the Kerguelen volcanic province from wide-angle seismic data: petrological implications. EOS Trans AGU 78:F711Google Scholar
  8. Chatterjee N, Crowley JL, Ghose NC (2008a) Geochronology of the 1.55 Ga Bengal anorthosite and Grenvillian metamorphism in the Chotanagpur gneissic complex, eastern India. Precamb Res 161:303–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chatterjee N, Crowley JL, Mukherjee A, Das S (2008b) Geochronology of the 983 Ma Chilka Lake Anorthosite, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: implications for pre-Gondwana tectonics. J Geol 116:105–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chatterjee N, Banerjee M, Bhattacharya A, Maji AK (2010) Monazite chronology, metamorphism-anatexis and tectonic relevance of the mid-Neoproterozoic Eastern Indian Tectonic Zone. Precamb Res 179:99–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chatterjee N, Bhattacharya A, Duarah BP, Mazumdar AC (2011) Late Cambrian reworking of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic granulites in Shillong-Meghalaya Gneissic Complex (Northeast India): evidence from PT pseudosection analysis and monazite chronology and implications for East Gondwana assembly. J Geol 119:311–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coffin MF, Frey FA, Wallace PJ, the Leg 183 Shipboard Scientific Party (2000) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, part A. Initial reports, 183. Ocean Drilling Program, College StationGoogle Scholar
  13. Coffin MF, Pringle MS, Duncan RA, Gladczenko TP, Storey M, Muller RD, Gahagan LA (2002) Kerguelen hotspot magma output since 130 Ma. J Petrol 43(7):1121–1139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Connolly JAD, Petrini K (2002) An automated strategy for calculation of phase diagram sections and retrieval of rock properties as a function of physical conditions. J Metamorph Geol 20:697–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crowley JL, Chatterjee N, Bowring SA, Sylvester PJ, Myers JS, Searle MP (2005) U-(Th)-Pb dating of monazite and xenotime by EMPA, LA-ICPMS, and IDTIMS: examples from the Yilgarn Craton and Himalayas. In: 15th annual goldschmidt conference abstracts, A19Google Scholar
  16. Dobmeier C, Simmat R (2002) Post-Grenvillian transpression in the Chilka Lake area, Eastern Ghats Belt–implications for the geological evolution of peninsular India. Precamb Res 113:243–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Duncan RA (2002) A time frame for construction of the Kerguelen Plateau and Broken Ridge. J Petrol 43(7):1109–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Flowers RM, Bowring SA, Mahan KH, Williams ML, Williams IS (2008) Stabilization and reactivation of cratonic lithosphere from the lower crustal record in the western Canadian shield. Contrib Mineral Petrol 156:529–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frey FA, Coffin MF, Wallace PJ, Weis D, Zhao X, Wise SW (2000) Origin and evolution of a submarine large igneous province: the Kerguelen Plateau and Broken Ridge, southern Indian Ocean. Earth Planet Sci Lett 176:73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frey FA, Weis D, Borisova AY, Xu G (2002) Involvement of continental crust in the formation of the Cretaceous Kerguelen Plateau: new perspectives from ODP Leg 120 sites. J Petrol 43(7):1207–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holland TJB, Powell R (1991) A compensated Redlich-Kwong (CORK) equation for volumes and fugacities of carbon dioxide and water in the range 1 bar to 50 kbar and 100–1600 C. Contrib Mineral Petrol 109:265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holland TJB, Powell R (1998) An internally consistent thermodynamic data set for phases of petrological interest. J Metamorph Geol 16:309–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holland TJB, Powell R (2001) Calculation of phase relations involving haplogranitic melts using an internally consistent thermodynamic dataset. J Petrol 42(4):673–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ingle S, Weis D, Scoates JS, Frey FA (2002a) Relationship between the earlier Kerguelen plume and continental flood basalts of the paleo-Eastern Gondwanan margins. Earth Planet Sci Lett 197:35–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ingle S, Weis D, Frey FA (2002b) Indian continental crust recovered from Elan Bank, Kerguelen Plateau (ODP Leg 183, Site 1137). J Petrol 43(7):1241–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kelly NM, Clarke GL, Carson CJ, White RW (2000) Thrusting in the lower crust: evidence from the Oygarden Islands, Kemp Land, East Antarctica. Geol Mag 137(3):219–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kelly NM, Clarke GL, Fanning CM (2002) A two-stage evolution of the Neoproterozoic Rayner structural episode: new U–Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe constraints from the Oygarden Group, Kemp Land, East Antarctica. Precamb Res 116:307–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kelsey DE, Wade BP, Collins AS, Hand M, Sealing CR, Netting A (2008) Discovery of a Neoproterozoic basin in the Prydz belt in East Antarctica and its implications for Gondwana assembly and ultrahigh temperature metamorphism. Precamb Res 161:355–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kent RW, Saunders AD, Kompton PD, Ghose NC (1997) Rajmahal basalts, Eastern India: mantle sources and melt distribution at a volcanic rifted margin. In: Mahoney JJ, Coffin MF (eds) Large igneous provinces: continental, oceanic and planetary flood volcanism. Geophys Monogr, AGU 100:145–182Google Scholar
  30. Kohn MJ (2003) Geochemical zoning in metamorphic minerals. In: Rudnick RL, Holland HD, Turekian KK (eds) Treatise on geochemistry, vol 3. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 229–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Konnecke LK, Coffin MF, Charvis P, Symonds PA, Ramsay D, Bernadel G (1997) Crustal structure of Elan Bank, Kerguelen Plateau. EOS Trans AGU 76:F712Google Scholar
  32. Krause O, Dobmeier C, Raith MM, Mezger K (2001) Age of emplacement of massif-type anorthosites in the Eastern Ghats Belt, India: constraints from U-Pb zircon dating and structural studies. Precamb Res 109:25–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kretz R (1983) Symbols for rock forming minerals. Am Mineral 68:277–279Google Scholar
  34. Li ZX, Bogdanova SV, Collins AS, Davidson A, De Waele B, Ernst RE, Fitzsimons ICW, Fuck RA, Gladkochub DP, Jacobs J, Karlstrom KE, Lu S, Natapov LM, Pease V, Pisarevsky SA, Thrane K, Vernikovsky V (2008) Assembly, configuration, and break-up history of Rodinia: a synthesis. Precamb Res 160:179–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mahato S, Goon S, Bhattacharya A, Mishra B, Bernhardt H-J (2008) Thermo-tectonic evolution of the North Singhbhum Mobile Belt (Eastern India): a view from the western part of the belt. Precamb Res 162:102–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mahoney JJ, Jones WB, Frey FA, Salters VJM, Pyle DJ, Davies HL (1995) Geochemical characteristics of lavas from Broken Ridge, the Naturaliste Plateau and southernmost Kerguelen Plateau: early volcanism of the Kerguelen hotspot. Chem Geol 120:315–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maji AK, Goon S, Bhattacharya A, Mishra B, Mahato S, Bernhardt H-J (2008) Proterozoic polyphase metamorphism in the Chhotanagpur Gneiss Complex (India), and implications for trans-continental Gondwana correlation. Precamb Res 162:385–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mezger K, Cosca MA (1999) The thermal history of the Eastern Ghats (India) as revealed by U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar dating of metamorphic and magmatic minerals: implications for the SWEAT correlation. Precamb Res 94:251–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Newton RC, Charlu TV, Kleppa OJ (1980) Thermochemistry of the high structural state plagioclases. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 44:933–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nicolaysen K (2001) The Cretaceous to recent history of the southeastern Indian Ocean: the role of mantle plumes examined by geochronology and Sr, Nd, Pb and He isotopic geochemistry. Ph.D. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA, pp 33–66Google Scholar
  41. Nicolaysen K, Bowring S, Frey FA, Weis D, Ingle S, Pringle MS, Coffin MF, the Leg 183 Shipboard Scientific Party (2001) Provenance of garnet-biotite gneiss recovered from Elan Bank, Kerguelen Plateau, southern Indian Ocean. Geology 29:235–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Patriat P, Sauter D, Munschy M, Parson L (1997) A survey of the Southwest Indian Ridge axis between Atlantis II fracture zone and the Indian Ocean triple junction: regional setting and large scale segmentation. Mar Geophys Res 19:457–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Paul DK, Ray Barman T, McNaughton NJ, Fletcher IR, Potts PJ, Ramakrishnan M, Augustine PF (1990) Archean-Proterozoic evolution of the Indian charnockites: isotopic and geochemical evidence from granulites of the Eastern Ghats Belt. J Geol 98:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pouchou JL, Pichoir F (1984) A new model for quantitative X-ray microanalysis, Part I: application to the analysis of homogeneous samples. La Recherche Aerospat 3:13–38Google Scholar
  45. Powell R, Holland TJB (1999) Relating formulations of the thermodynamics of mineral solid solutions; activity modeling of pyroxenes, amphiboles and micas. Am Miner 84:1–14Google Scholar
  46. Reusch DN, Yates M (2002) Data report: compositions of garnet sand grains from Elan Bank, Kerguelen Plateau (ODP Site 1137). In: Frey FA, Coffin MF, Wallace PJ, Quilty PG (eds) Proceedings of the ocean drilling program, Scientific Results, vol 183, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  47. Rickers K, Mezger K, Raith MM (2001) Evolution of the continental crust in the Proterozoic Eastern Ghats Belt, India and new constraints for Rodinia reconstruction: Implications from Sm–Nd, Rb–Sr and Pb–Pb isotopes. Precamb Res 112:183–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ryan WBF, Carbotte SM, Coplan JO, O’Hara S, Melkonian A, Arko R, Weissel RA, Ferrini V, Goodwillie A, Nische F, Bonczkowski J, Zemsky R (2009) Global multi-resolution topography synthesis. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 10:Q03014. doi: 10.1029/2008GC002332 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Saha AK, Ghosh S, Dasgupta D, Mukhopadhyay K, Ray SL (1984) Studies of crustal evolution of the Singhbhum—Orissa iron ore group: crustal evolution and metallogenesis in selected areas of the Indian shield. Monograph Indian Society of Earth Sciences, Calcutta, pp 1–74Google Scholar
  50. Saha A, Basu AR, Garzione CN, Bandyopadhyay PK, Chakrabarti A (2004) Geochemical and petrological evidence for subduction-accretion processes in the Archean Eastern Indian Craton. Earth Planet Sci Lett 220:91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Simmat R, Raith MM (2008) U-Th-Pb monazite geochronometry of the Eastern Ghats Belt, India: timing and spatial disposition of poly-metamorphism. Precamb Res 162:16–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Thompson JB, Hovis GL (1979) Entropy of mixing in sanidine. Am Miner 64:57–65Google Scholar
  53. Torsvik TH, Carter LM, Ashwal LD, Bhusan SK, Pandit MK, Jamtveit B (2001) Rodinia refined or obscured: palaeomagnetism of the Malani igneous suite. Precamb Res 108:319–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Weis D, Ingle S, Damasceno D, Frey FA, Nicolaysen K, Barling J (2001) Origin of continental components in Indian Ocean basalts: evidence from Elan Bank (Kerguelen Plateau, ODP Leg 183, Site 1137). Geology 29:147–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. White RW, Powell R, Holland TJB, Worley B (2000) The effect of TiO2 and Fe2O3 on metapelitic assemblages at greenschist and amphibolite facies conditions: mineral equilibria calculations in the system K2O–FeO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O–TiO2–Fe2O3. J Metamorph Geol 18:497–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. White RW, Powell R, Holland TJB (2001) Calculation of partial melting equilibria in the system Na2O–CaO–K2O–FeO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O (NCKFMASH). J Metamorph Geol 19:139–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Williams ML, Jercinovic MJ, Hetherington CJ (2007) Microprobe monazite geochronology: understanding geologic processes by integrating composition and chronology. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 35:137–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wingate MTD, Giddings JW (2000) Age and palaeomagnetism of the Mundine Well dyke swarm, Western Australia: implications for an Australia-Laurentia connection at 755 Ma. Precamb Res 100:335–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wise SW, Coxall HK, Waehnert V, Antretter MJ, Inokuchi H, Coffin MF, Frey FA, Wallace PJ, McArthur JM, Weis D, Zhao X, Teagle DAH, Saccocia PJ, Reusch DN, Pringle MS, Nicolaysen KE, Neal CR, Müller RD, Moore CL, Mahoney JJ, Keszthelyi L, Duncan RA, Delius H, Damuth JE, Damasceno D, Boore MK, Boehm F, Barling J, Arndt NT (2002) The Kerguelen Plateau: new paleontologic and paleomagnetic age constraints on growth history from ODP Leg 183 Drilling. Bull Royal Soc NZ 35:239–247Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EarthAtmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeologyWhitman CollegeWalla WallaUSA

Personalised recommendations