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Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 160, Issue 6, pp 931–950 | Cite as

Mechanisms driving polymagmatic activity at a monogenetic volcano, Udo, Jeju Island, South Korea

  • Marco Brenna
  • Shane J. Cronin
  • Ian E. M. Smith
  • Young Kwan Sohn
  • Karoly Németh
Original Paper

Abstract

High-resolution, stratigraphically ordered samples of the Udo tuff cone and lava shield offshore of Jeju Island, South Korea, show complex geochemical variation in the basaltic magmas that fed the eruption sequence. The eruption began explosively, producing phreatomagmatic deposits with relatively evolved alkali magma. The magma became more primitive over the course of the eruption, but the last magma to be explosively erupted had shifted back to a relatively evolved composition. A separate sub-alkali magma batch was subsequently effusively erupted to form a lava shield. Absence of weathering and only minor reworking between the tuff and overlying lava implies that there was no significant time break between the eruptions of the two magma batches. Modelling of the alkali magma suggests that it was generated from a parent melt in garnet peridotite at c. 3 to 3.5 GPa and underwent mainly clinopyroxene + olivine ± spinel fractionation at c. 1.5 to 2 GPa. The sub-alkali magma was, by contrast, generated from a chemically different peridotite with residual garnet at c. 2.5 GPa and evolved through olivine fractionation at a shallower level compared to its alkali contemporary. The continuous chemostratigraphic trend in the tuff cone, from relatively evolved to primitive and back to evolved, is interpreted to have resulted from a magma batch having risen through a single dyke and erupted the batch’s head, core and margins, respectively. The alkali magma acted as a path-opener for the sub-alkali magma. The occurrence of the two distinct batches suggests that different magmatic systems in the Jeju Island Volcanic Field have interacted throughout its history. The polymagmatic nature of this monogenetic eruption has important implications for hazard forecasting and for our understanding of basaltic field volcanism.

Keywords

Monogenetic volcanism Basalt geochemistry Jeju Island Plumbing system Alkali basalt 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Appreciation is expressed to Bob Stewart, Richard Price, Greg Valentine, Ting Wang and Mary Gee for constructive discussion and comments and to Chang Woo Kwon for able assistance in the field. Thorough review by Greg Valentine, Amanda Hintz and an anonymous reviewer greatly improved the manuscript. This project was supported by the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology International Investment Opportunities Fund Project MAUX0808 to SJC “Facing the challenge of Auckland volcanism”, by the Basic Science Research Program to YKS (2009-0079427) through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and by a Massey University Vice-chancellor’s Scholarship to MB.

Supplementary material

410_2010_515_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (29 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 28 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Brenna
    • 1
  • Shane J. Cronin
    • 1
  • Ian E. M. Smith
    • 2
  • Young Kwan Sohn
    • 3
  • Karoly Németh
    • 1
  1. 1.Volcanic Risk SolutionsMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  2. 2.School of Geography, Geology and Environmental ScienceThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Department of Earth & Environmental SciencesGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuSouth Korea

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