Advertisement

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 160, Issue 3, pp 359–381 | Cite as

Construction of the granitoid crust of an island arc. Part II: a quantitative petrogenetic model

Original Paper

Abstract

Results of simple model calculations that integrate cumulate compositions from the Kohistan arc terrain are presented in order to develop a consistent petrogenetic model to explain the Kohistan island arc granitoids. The model allows a quantitative approximation of the possible relative roles of fractional crystallization and assimilation to explain the silica-rich upper crust composition of oceanic arcs. Depending in detail on the parental magma composition hydrous moderate-to-high pressure fractional crystallization in the lower crust/upper mantle is an adequate upper continental crust forming mechanism in terms of volume and compositions. Accordingly, assimilation and partial melting in the lower crust is not per se a necessary process to explain island arc granitoids. However, deriving few percent of melts using low degree of dehydration melting is a crucial process to produce volumetrically important amounts of upper continental crust from silica-poorer parental magmas. Even though the model can explain the silica-rich upper crustal composition of the Kohistan, the fractionation model does not predict the accepted composition of the bulk continental crust. This finding supports the idea that additional crustal refining mechanism (e.g., delamination of lower crustal rocks) and/or non-cogenetic magmatic process were critical to create the bulk continental crust composition.

Keywords

Continental crust Granitoid Crystal fractionation Partial melting Subduction zone 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Discussions with Matt Rioux, Tim Grove and Othmar Müntener helped to shape these ideas. Bruno Dhuime is thanked for sharing in-depth details related to his geochemical dataset. Othmar Müntener is thanked for comments on the manuscript and the very helpful, detailed, and thoughtful journal reviews by Tom Sisson and an anonymous reviewer greatly improved the manuscript.

References

  1. Alonso-Perez R, Müntener O, Ulmer P (2009) Igneous garnet and amphibole fractionation in the roots of island arcs: experimental constraints on H2O undersaturated andesitic liquids. Contrib Mineral Petrol 157:541–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Annen C, Blundy JD, Sparks RSJ (2006) The genesis of intermediate and silicic magmas in deep crustal hot zones. J Petrol 47:505–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arbaret L, Burg JP, Zeilinger G, Chaudhry N, Hussain S, Dawood H (2000) Pre-collisional anastomosing shear zones in the Kohistan Arc, NW Pakistan. In: Khan MA, Treloar Peter J, Searle Michael P, Jan MQ (eds) Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis and the western Himalaya. Geological Society of London, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Arculus RJ, Wills KJA (1980) The petrology of plutonic blocks and inclusions from the Lesser Antilles island arc. J Petrol 21:743–799Google Scholar
  5. Bard JP (1983) Metamorphism of an obducted island arc; example of the Kohistan Sequence (Pakistan) in the Himalayan collided range. Earth Planet Sci Lett 65:133–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck SL, Zandt G, Myers SC, Wallace TC, Silver PG, Drake L (1996) Crustal-thickness variations in the central Andes. Geology 24:407–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bignold SM, Treloar PJ (2003) Northward subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Kohistan island arc, Pakistan Himalaya: new evidence from isotopic data. J Geol Soc 160:377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bignold SA, Treloar PJ, Petford N (2006) Changing sources of magma generation beneath intra-oceanic island arcs: an insight from the juvenile Kohistan island arc, Pakistan Himalaya. Chem Geol 233:46–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowen NL (1928) The evolution of the igneous rocks. Dover Publications, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Burg JP, Arbaret L, Chaudhry NM, Dawood H, Hussain S, Zeilinger G (2005) Shear strain localization from the upper mantle to the middle crust of the Kohistan Arc (Pakistan). In: Bruhn D, Burlini L (eds) High-strain zones: structure and physical properties, vol 245, Special Publications. Geological Society, London, pp 25–38Google Scholar
  11. Burg JP, Jagoutz O, Hamid D, Hussain S (2006) Pre-collision tilt of crustal blocks in rifted island arcs: structural evidence from the Kohistan Arc. Tectonics 25:13. doi: 10.1029/2005TC001835 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clemens JD, Vielzeuf D (1987) Constraints on melting and magma production in the crust. Earth Planet Sci Lett 86:287–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Condie KC (2008) Did the character of subduction change at the end of the Archean? Constraints from convergent-margin granitoids. Geology 36:611–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conrey RM, Hooper PR, Larson PB, Chesley J, Ruiz J (2001) Trace element and isotopic evidence for two types of crustal melting beneath a High Cascade volcanic center, Mt. Jefferson, Oregon. Contrib Mineral Petrol 141:710–732Google Scholar
  15. Coward MP, Windley BF, Broughton RD, Luff IW, Petterson MG, Pudsey CJ, Rex DC, Asif KM (1986) Collision tectonics in the NW Himalayas. In: Coward MP, Ries Alison C (eds) Collision tectonics, vol 19. Geological Society Special Publications, London, United Kingdom, Geological Society of London, pp 203–219Google Scholar
  16. Coward MP, Butler RWH, Asif KM, Knipe RJ (1987) The tectonic history of Kohistan and its implications for Himalayan structure. J Geol Soc Lond 144:377–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Daly RA (1933) Igneous rocks and the depth of the Earth. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Davidson J, Turner S, Handley H, Macpherson C, Dosseto A (2007) Amphibole “sponge” in arc crust? Geology 35:787–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dhuime B, Bosch D, Bodinier JL, Garrido CJ, Bruguier O, Hussain SS, Dawood, H (2007) Multistage evolution of the Jijal ultramafic-mafic complex (Kohistan, N Pakistan): implications for building the roots of island arcs. Earth Planet Sci Lett. doi:  10.1016/j.epsl.2007.06.026
  20. Dhuime B, Bosch D, Garrido CJ, Bodinier JL, Bruguier O, Hussain SS, Dawood H (2009) Geochemical architecture of the lower- to middle-crustal section of a Paleo-island Arc (Kohistan Complex, JijalKamila Area, Northern Pakistan): implications for the evolution of an oceanic subduction zone. J Petrol 50:531–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dufek J, Bergantz GW (2005) Lower crustal magma genesis and preservation: a stochastic framework for the evaluation of the basalt–crust interaction. J Petrol 46:2167–2195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eiler JM, Crawford A, Elliott T, Farley KA, Valley JW, Stolper EM (2000) Oxygen isotope geochemistry of oceanic-arc lavas. J Petrol 41:229–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Eiler JM, Schiano P, Valley JW, Kita NT, Stolper EM (2007) Oxygen-isotope and trace element constraints on the origins of silica-rich melts in the subarc mantle. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 8:Q09012. doi: 10.1029/2006GC001503
  24. Enggist A (2007) Geobarometry and magmatic processes. Kohistan Batholith, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  25. Garrido CJ, Bodinier JL, Burg JP, Zeilinger G, Hussain SS, Dawood H, Chaudhry MN, Gervilla F (2006) Petrogenesis of mafic garnet granulite in the lower crust of the Kohistan paleo-arc complex (northern Pakistan); implications for intra-crustal differentiation of island arcs and generation of continental crust. J Petrol 47:1873–1914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gill J (1981) Orogenic andesites and plate tectonics. Springer, Berlin, p 390Google Scholar
  27. Green TH, Ringwood AE (1968) Genesis of the calcalkaline igneous suite. Contrib Mineral Petrol 18:105–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Greene AR, DeBari SM, Kelemen P, Blusztajn JS, Clift Peter D (2006) A detailed geochemical study of island arc crust: the Talkeetna Arc Section, South-Central Alaska. J Petrol 47:1051–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grove TL, Parman SW, Bowring SA, Price RC, Baker MB (2002) The role of an H2O-rich fluid component in the generation of primitive basaltic andesites and andesites from the Mt. Shasta region, N California. Contrib Mineral Petrol 142:375–396Google Scholar
  30. Grove TL, Elkins-Tanton LT, Parman SW, Chatterjee N, Muntener O, Gaetani GA (2003) Fractional crystallization and mantle-melting controls on calc-alkaline differentiation trends. Contrib Mineral Petrol 145:515–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hacker BR, Mehl L, Kelemen PB, Rioux M, Behn MD, Luffi P (2008) Reconstruction of the Talkeetna intraoceanic arc of Alaska through thermobarometry. J Geophys Res 113:B03204. doi: 10.1029/2007JB005208
  32. Harley SL (1989) The origins of granulites—a metamorphic perspective. Geol Mag 126:215–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hawkesworth CJ, Kemp AIS (2006) The differentiation and rates of generation of the continental crust. Chem Geol 226:134–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heltz RT (1982) Phase relations and composition of amphiboles produced in studies of the melting behavior of rocks. In: Veblen DR, Ribbe PH (eds) Petrology and experimental phase relations, vol 9B. Mineralogical Society of America, Virginia, pp 279–354Google Scholar
  35. Hildreth W, Moorbath S (1988) Crustal contributions to arc magmatism in the Andes of Central Chile. Contrib Mineral Petrol 98:455–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Horodyskyj UN, Lee CTA, Ducea MN (2007) Similarities between Archean high MgO eclogites and Phanerozoic arc-eclogite cumulates and the role of arcs in Archean continent formation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 256:510–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huppert HE, Sparks RSJ (1988) The generation of granitic magmas by intrusion of basalt into continental-crust. J Petrol 29:599–624Google Scholar
  38. Jagoutz O, Müntener O, Burg J-P, Ulmer P, Jagoutz E (2006) Lower continental crust formation through focused flow in km-scale melt conduits: the zoned ultramafic bodies of the Chilas Complex in the Kohistan Island arc (NW Pakistan). Earth Planet Sci Lett 242:320–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jagoutz O, Müntener O, Ulmer P, Burg J-P, Pettke T (2007) Petrology and mineral chemistry of lower crustal intrusions: the Chilas Complex, Kohistan (NW Pakistan). J Petrol 48:1895–1953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jagoutz O, Burg J-P, Hussain S, Dawood H, Pettke T, Iizuka T, Maruyama S (2009) Construction of the granitoid crust of an island arc part I: geochronological and geochemical constraints from the plutonic Kohistan (NW Pakistan). Contrib Mineral Petrol 158:739–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jan MQ, Howie RA (1981) The mineralogy and geochemistry of the metamorphosed basic and ultrabasic rocks of the Jijal Complex, Kohistan, NW Pakistan. J Petrol 22:85–126Google Scholar
  42. Jan MQ, Windley BF (1990) Chromian spinel-silicate chemistry in ultramafic rocks of the Jijal Complex Northwest Pakistan. J Petrol 31:667–715Google Scholar
  43. Janousek V, Farrow CM, Erban V (2006) Interpretation of whole-rock geochemical data in igneous geochemistry: introducing geochemical data toolkit (GCDkit). J Petrol 47:1255–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jull M, Kelemen PB (2001) On the conditions for lower crustal convective instability. J Geophys Res B Solid Earth Planets 106:6423–6446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kägi R (2000) The liquid line of descent of hydrous. Primary, calc-alkaline magmas under elevated pressure. An experimental approach. ZürichGoogle Scholar
  46. Kay SM, Kay RW (1985) Role of crystal cumulates and the oceanic crust in the formation of the lower crust of the Aleutian arc. Geology 13:461–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kay SM, Kay RW, Citron GP, Perfit MR (1990) Calc-alkaline plutonism in the intra-oceanic Aleutian Arc, Alaska. In: Kay SM, Rapela CW (eds) Plutonism from Antarctica to Alaska, vol 241, Geological Society of America Special Paper, pp 233–255Google Scholar
  48. Kelemen PB (1995) Genesis of high Mg andesites and the continental crust. Contrib Mineral Petrol 120:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kelemen P, Hanghoj K, Greene A (2003a) One view of the geochemistry of subduction-related magmatic arcs, with an emphasis on primitive andesite and lower crust. In: Rudnick RL (ed) The crust, vol 3: treatise on geochemistry. Elsevier–Pergamon, Oxford, pp 593–659Google Scholar
  50. Kelemen P, Rilling JL, Parmentier EM, Mehl L, Hacker BR (2003b) Thermal structure due to solid-state flow in the mantle wedge Beneath Arcs. In: Eiler JM (ed) Inside subduction factory, vol 138: Geophysical Monograph, American Geophysical UnionGoogle Scholar
  51. Kemp AIS, Hawkesworth CJ, Foster GL, Paterson BA, Woodhead JD, Hergt JM, Gray CM, Whitehouse MJ (2007) Magmatic and crustal differentiation history of granitic rocks from Hf-O isotopes in zircon. Science 315:980–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Khan MA, Jan MQ, Windley BF, Tarney J, Thirlwall MF (1989) The Chilas mafic–ultramafic igneous complex; the root of the Kohistan island arc in the Himalaya of northern Pakistan. In: Malinconico Lawrence L Jr, Lillie Robert J (eds) Tectonics of the western Himalayas, vol 232, Special Paper—Geological Society of America. Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, pp 75–94Google Scholar
  53. Khan MA, Jan MQ, Weaver BL (1993) Evolution of the lower arc crust in Kohistan, N. Pakistan; temporal arc magmatism through early, mature and intra-arc rift stages. In: Treloar PJ, Searle MP (eds) Himalayan tectonics, vol 74, Geological Society Special Publications. Geological Society of London, London, pp 123–138Google Scholar
  54. Khan SD, Walker DJ, Hall SA, Burke KC, Shah MT, Stockli L (2008) Did Kohistan-Ladakh island arc collide first with India? Geol Soc Am Bull 121:366–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kodaira S, Sato T, Takahashi N, Miura S, Tamura Y, Tatsumi Y, Kaneda Y (2007) New seismological constraints on growth of continental crust in the Izu-Bonin intra-oceanic arc. Geology 35:1031–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee CTA, Morton DM, Kistler RW, Baird AK (2007) Petrology and tectonics of Phanerozoic continent formation: from island arcs to accretion and continental arc magmatism. Earth Planet Sci Lett 263:370–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McCulloch MT, Gamble JA (1991) Geochemical and geodynamical constraints on subduction zone magmatism. Earth Planet Sci Lett 102:358–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mclennan SM, Taylor SR (1982) Geochemical constraints on the growth of the continental-crust. J Geol 90:347–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Miller DJ, Christensen NI (1994) Seismic signature and geochemistry of an island arc; a multidisciplinary study of the Kohistan accreted terrane, northern Pakistan. J Geophys Res B Solid Earth Planets 99:11623–11642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Miller DJ, Loucks RR, Ashraf M (1991) Platinum-group element mineralization in the Jijal layered ultramafic-mafic complex, Pakistani Himalayas. Econ Geol (Bull Soc Econ Geol) 86:1093–1102Google Scholar
  61. Morris JD, Leeman WP, Tera F (1990) The subducted component in island arc lavas; constraints from B-Be isotopes and Be systematics. Nature 344:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Müntener O, Ulmer P (2006) Experimentally derived high-pressure cumulates from hydrous arc magmas and consequences for the seismic velocity structure of lower arc crust. Geophys Res Lett 33:L41308. doi: 10.1029/2006GL027629
  63. Müntener O, Kelemen PB, Grove TL (2001) The role of H2O during crystallization of primitive arc magmas under uppermost mantle conditions and genesis of igneous pyroxenites; an experimental study. Contrib Mineral Petrol 141:643–658Google Scholar
  64. Müntener O, Ulmer P, Schmidt MW, Jagoutz O (in prep) Magmatic paragonite and epidote: phase relations and consequences for the igneous evolution of the Kohistan island arc (Pakistan)Google Scholar
  65. Perfit MR, Brueckner H, Lawrence JR, Kay RW (1980) Trace-Element and Isotopic Variations in a Zoned Pluton and Associated Volcanic-Rocks, Unalaska Island, Alaska—a model for fractionation in the Aleutian calcalkaline Suite. Contrib Mineral Petrol 73:69–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Petterson MG, Windley BF (1985) Rb–Sr dating of the Kohistan arc-batholith in the Trans-Himalaya of North Pakistan, and tectonic implications. Earth Planet Sci Lett 74:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pitcher WS (1997) The nature and origin of granite. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  68. Plank T (2005) Constraints from thorium/lanthanum on sediment recycling at subduction zones and the evolution of continents. J Petrol 46:921–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pudsey CJ, Coward MP, Luff IW, Shackleton RM, Windley BF, Jan MQ (1985) Collision zone between the Kohistan Arc and the Asian Plate in NW Pakistan: transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Earth Sci 76:463–479Google Scholar
  70. Ringuette L, Martignole J, Windley BF (1999) Magmatic crystallization, isobaric cooling, and decompression of the garnet-bearing assemblages of the Jijal Sequence (Kohistan Terrane, western Himalayas). Geology (Boulder) 27:139–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rudnick RL (1995) Making continental crust. Nature 378:571–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rudnick RL, Gao S (2003) The composition of the continental crust. In: Rudnick RL (ed) The crust, vol 3: treatise on Geochemistry. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 1–64Google Scholar
  73. Schaltegger U, Zeilinger G, Frank M, Burg JP (2002) Multiple mantle sources during island arc magmatism; U–Pb and Hf isotopic evidence from the Kohistan arc complex, Pakistan. Terra Nova 14:461–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schaltegger U, Heuberger S, Frank M, Fontignie D, Sergeev S, Burg JP (2004) Crust-mantle interaction during Karakoram-Kohistan accretion (NW Pakistan). Goldschmidt 2004. Geochim Cosmochim Acta Copenhagen 68/11Google Scholar
  75. Searle MP, Khan MA, Fraser JE, Gough SJ, Qasim JM (1999) The tectonic evolution of the Kohistan–Karakoram collision belt along the Karakoram Highway transect, North Pakistan. Tectonics 18:929–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shah MT, Shervais JW (1999) The Dir-Utror metavolcanic sequence, Kohistan arc terrane, northern Pakistan. J Asian Earth Sci 17:459–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shillington DJ, Van Avendonk HJA, Holbrook WS, Kelemen PB, Hornbach MJ (2004) Composition and structure of the central Aleutian island arc from arc-parallel wide-angle seismic data. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 5:Q10006. doi: 10.1029/2004GC000715
  78. Sisson TW, Grove TL (1993) Experimental investigations of the role of H (sub 2) O in calc-alkaline differentiation and subduction zone magmatism. Contrib Mineral Petrol 113:143–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sisson TW, Ratajeski K, Hankins WB, Glazner AF (2005) Voluminous granitic magmas from common basaltic sources. Contrib Mineral Petrol 148:635–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Smith DR, Leeman WP (1987) Petrogenesis of Mount St-Helens dacitic magmas. J Geophys Res Solid Earth Planets 92:10313–10334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Stern CR (1991) Role of subduction erosion in the generation of Andean magmas. Geology 19:78–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Suyehiro K, Takahashi N, Ariie Y, Yokoi Y, Hino R, Shinohara M, Kanazawa T, Hirata N, Tokuyama H, Taira A (1996) Continental crust, crustal underplating, and low-Q upper mantle beneath an oceanic island arc. Science 272:390–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tahirkheli RAK, Mattauer M, Proust F, Tapponnier P (1979) The India-Eurasia suture zone in northern Pakistan; synthesis and interpretation of recent data at plate scale. In: Abul F, DeJong KA (eds) Geodynamics of Pakistan. Geological Survey of Pakistan, Quetta, pp 125–130Google Scholar
  84. Taylor SR (1977) Island arc models and the composition of the continental crust. In: Talwani M, Pitman WC III (eds) Island arcs, deep sea trenches and back-arc basins, vol 1, Maurice Ewing Series. American Geophysical Union, Washington, pp 325–335Google Scholar
  85. Taylor SR, Mclennan SM (1981) The composition and evolution of the continental-crust—rare-earth element evidence from sedimentary-rocks. Phil Trans R Soc Lond Ser A Math Phys Eng Sci 301:381–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Treloar PJ, Petterson MG, Jan MQ, Sullivan MA (1996) A re-evaluation of the stratigraphy and evolution of the Kohistan Arc sequence, Pakistan Himalaya; implications for magmatic and tectonic arc-building processes. J Geol Soc London 153(5):681–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tuttle OF, Bowen NL (1958) Origin of granite in the light of experimental studies in the system NaAlSi3O8–KAlSi3O8–SiO2–H2O. Geol Soc Am Mem 74, 153 ppGoogle Scholar
  88. Vielzeuf D, Schmidt MW (2001) Melting relations in hydrous systems revisited: application to metapelites, metagreywackes and metabasalts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 141:251–267Google Scholar
  89. Whalen JB (1985) Geochemistry of an island-arc plutonic suite; the Uasilau-Yau Yau intrusive complex, New Britain, PNG. J Petrol 26:603–632Google Scholar
  90. White A, Chapell B (1983) Granitoid types and their distribution in the Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia. Geol Soc Am Mem 159:21–34Google Scholar
  91. Yamamoto H (1993) Contrasting metamorphic PT–time paths of the Kohistan granulites and tectonics of the western Himalayas. J Geol Soc Lond 150(5):843–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yamamoto H, Nakamura E (1996) Sm–Nd dating of garnet granulites from the Kohistan Complex, northern Pakistan. J Geol Soc Lond 153(6):965–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Yamamoto H, Nakamura E (2000) Timing of magmatic and metamorphic events in the Jijal Complex of the Kohistan Arc deduced from Sm-Nd dating of mafic granulites. In: Khan MA, Treloar Peter J, Searle Michael P, Jan MQ (eds) Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis and the western Himalaya. Geological Society of London, LondonGoogle Scholar
  94. Yamamoto H, Yoshino T (1998) Superposition of replacements in the mafic granulites of the Jijal Complex of the Kohistan Arc, northern Pakistan; dehydration and rehydration within deep arc crust. Lithos 43:219–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yamamoto H, Kobayashi K, Nakamura E, Kaneko Y, Kausar Allah B (2005) U–Pb zircon dating of regional deformation in the lower crust of the Kohistan Arc. Int Geol Rev 47:1035–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yoder HS Jr, Tilley CE (1962) Origin of basalt magmas; an experimental study of natural and synthetic rock systems. J Petrol 3:342–529Google Scholar
  97. Yoshino T, Okudaira T (2004) Crustal growth by magmatic accretion constrained by metamorphic PT paths and thermal models of the Kohistan Arc, NW Himalayas. J Petrol 45:2287–2302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yoshino T, Satish KM (2001) Origin of scapolite in deep-seated metagabbros of the Kohistan Arc, NW Himalayas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 140:511–531Google Scholar
  99. Yoshino T, Yamamoto H, Okudaira T, Toriumi M (1998) Crustal thickening of the lower crust of the Kohistan Arc (N. Pakistan) deduced from Al zoning in clinopyroxene and plagioclase. J Metamorph Geol 16:729–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zeilinger G (2002) Structural and geochronological study of the lowest Kohistan complex, Indus Kohistan region in Pakistan, NW Himalaya: Unpublished PhD, ETH ZurichGoogle Scholar
  101. Zeitler PK (1985) Cooling history of the NW Himalaya, Pakistan. Tectonics 4:127–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary SciencesMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations