Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 160, Issue 2, pp 297–312 | Cite as

Simple mixing as the major control of the evolution of volcanic suites in the Ecuadorian Andes

  • Pierre SchianoEmail author
  • M. Monzier
  • J.-P. Eissen
  • H. Martin
  • K. T. Koga
Original Paper


Examination of an extensive major and trace element database for about 700 whole rocks from the Ecuadorian Andes reveals series of local trends typified by three volcanoes: Iliniza and Pichincha from the Western Cordillera and Tungurahua from the Eastern Cordillera. These local trends are included in a more scattered global trend that reflects typical across-arc chemical variations. The scatter of the global trend is attributed to greater crustal contributions or decreasing melt fractions. Trace element modelling shows that the local trends are consistent with mixing, and not with any fractional crystallization or progressive melting dominated processes. These local trends are extendable to include samples from other Ecuadorian volcanoes, suggesting that mixing processes are dominant throughout the region. Mixing model using trace and major element analyses identifies two end-members: low-silica, basaltic and high-silica, dacitic magmas. It also shows that mixing occurred between magmas after their segregation, rather than earlier mixing between the solid sources prior to melting. As a consequence, there must exist efficient magma-mixing processes that can overcome the obstacles to mixing magmas with contrasting physical properties, and can produce series of hybrid liquids over regional-scale. Model calculations show that estimated silicic end-members are primary magmas and are not co-magmatic derivatives of the corresponding mafic end-members. Lavas of Ecuadorian volcanoes are likely originated from magmas of contrasting origins, such as basaltic magmas generated by fluxed melting of peridotites in the mantle wedge and dacitic, adakite-type magmas originating from the slab or the mafic lower crust.


Ecuador Magma mixing Arc lavas Adakite 



The authors thank P. Samaniego for critical reading of the manuscript, two anonymous referees for constructive reviews and T. L. Grove for editorial handling.

Supplementary material

410_2009_478_MOESM1_ESM.doc (26 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 25.5 kb)
410_2009_478_MOESM2_ESM.xls (421 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLS 421 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre Schiano
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • M. Monzier
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • J.-P. Eissen
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • H. Martin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • K. T. Koga
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratoire Magmas et VolcansClermont Université, Université Blaise PascalClermont-FerrandFrance
  2. 2.CNRS, UMR 6524, IRD, R 163Clermont-Ferrand CedexFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoire Magmas et VolcansUniversité Blaise PascalClermont-Ferrand CedexFrance

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