Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 156, Issue 6, pp 765–784 | Cite as

Nd, Pb, and Sr isotope composition of Late Mesozoic to Quaternary intra-plate magmatism in NE-Africa (Sudan, Egypt): high-μ signatures from the mantle lithosphere

  • Friedrich Lucassen
  • Gerhard Franz
  • Rolf L. Romer
  • Dieter Pudlo
  • Peter Dulski
Original Paper


The isotopic composition of mafic small-volume intra-plate magmatism constrains the compositions of the sub-continental mantle sources. The Nd, Pb, and Sr isotope signatures of widespread late Mesozoic to Quaternary intra-plate magmatism in NE Africa (Sudan, South Egypt) are surprisingly uniform and indicate the presence of a high-μ (μ = 238U/204Pb) source in the mantle. The rocks are characterized by small ranges in the initial isotopic composition of Nd, Pb, and Sr and most samples fall within ε Nd ca. 3–6, 206Pb/204Pb ca. 19.5–20.5, 207Pb/204Pb ca. 15.63–15.73, 208Pb/204Pb ca. 39–40 and 87Sr/86Sr ca. 0.7028–0.7034. We interpret this reservoir as lithospheric mantle that formed beneath the Pan-African orogens and magmatic arcs from asthenospheric mantle, which was enriched in trace elements (U, Th, and light REE). Combining our new data set with published data of intra-plate magmatic rocks from the Arabian plate indicates two compositionally different domains of lithospheric mantle in NE-Africa–Arabia. The two domains are spatially related to the subdivision of the Pan-African orogen into a western section dominated by reworked cratonic basement (NE-Africa; high-μ lithospheric mantle) and an eastern section dominated by juvenile Pan-African basement (easternmost NE-Africa and Arabia; moderate μ lithospheric mantle). The compositions of the Pan-African lithospheric mantle and the MORB-type mantle of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden spreading centers could explain the Nd–Pb-Sr isotopic compositions of the most pristine Afar flood basalts in Yemen and Ethiopia by mixtures of the isotopic composition of regional lithospheric and asthenospheric sources.


NE-Africa Intra-plate magmatism Nd–Pb-Sr isotopes Upper mantle isotope composition High-μ mantle 

Supplementary material

410_2008_314_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (559 kb)
Electronic Appendix (PDF 559 kb)


  1. Abdel Rahman EM, Harms U, Schandelmeier H, Franz G, Darbyshire DPF, Horn P, Müller-Sohnius D (1990) A new ophiolite occurrence in NW Sudan—constraints on Late Proterozoic tectonism. Terra Nova 2:363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdelsalam MG, Liégeois J-P, Stern RJ (2002) The Saharan Metacraton. J Afr Earth Sci 34:119–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almond DC (1986) Geological evolution of the Afro-Arabian dome. Tectonophysics 131:301–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almond DC, Kheir OM, Poole S (1984) Alkaline basalt volcanism in the northeastern Sudan: a comparison of the Bayuda and Gedaref areas. J Afr Earth Sci 2:233–245Google Scholar
  5. Altherr R, Henjes-Kunst F, Puchelt H, Baumann A (1988) Volcanic activity in the Red Sea axial trough—evidence for a large mantle diapir. Tectonophysics 150:121–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Altherr R, Henjes-Kunst F, Baumann A (1990) Asthenosphere versus lithosphere as possible sources for basaltic magmas erupted during formation of the Red Sea: constraints from Sr, Pb and Nd isotopes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 96:269–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailo T, Schandelmeier H, Franz G, Sun C-H, Stern RJ (2003) Plutonic and metamorphic rocks from the Keraf Suture (NE Sudan): a glimpse of Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution on the NE margin of W. Gondwana. Precambrian Res 123:67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baker JA, Thirlwall MF, Menzies MA (1996) Sr-Nd–Pb isotopic and trace element evidence for crustal contamination of plume-derived flood basalts: oligocene flood volcanism in western Yemen. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60:2559–2581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker JA, Menzies MA, Thirlwall MF, Macpherson CG (1997) Petrogenesis of Quaternary intraplate volcanism, Sana’a, Yemen: implications for plume–lithosphere interaction and polybaric melt hybridization. J Petrol 38:1359–1390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baker JA, Chazot G, Menzies M, Thirlwall MF (1998) Metasomatism of the shallow mantle beneath Yemen by the Afar plume—implications for mantle plumes, flood volcanism, and intraplate volcanism. Geology 26:431–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrat JA, Fourcade S, Jahn BM, Cheminee JL, Capdevila R (1998) Isotope (Sr, Nd, Pb, O) and trace-element geochemistry of volcanics from the Erta'Ale range (Ethiopia). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 80:85–100Google Scholar
  12. Bell K, Tilton GR (2001) Nd, Pb and Sr isotopic compositions of East African Carbonatites: evidence for mantle mixing and plume inhomogeneity. J Petrol 42:1927–1945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Benoit MH, Nyblade AA, Owens TJ, Stuart G (2006) Mantle transition zone structure and upper mantle S velocity variations beneath Ethiopia: evidence for a broad, deep-seated thermal anomaly. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 7. doi:10.1029/2006GC001398.
  14. Bertrand H, Chazot G, Blichert-Toft J, Thoral S (2003) Implications of widespread high-μ volcanism on the Arabian plate for Afar mantle plume and lithosphere composition. Chem Geol 198:47–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Black J, Liégeois J-P (1993) Cratons, mobile belts, alkaline rocks and continental lithospheric mantle: the Pan-African testimony. J Geol Soc Lond 150:89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brueckner HK, Elhaddad MA, Hamelin B, Hemming S, Kröner A, Reisberg L, Seyler M (1995) A Pan African origin and uplift for the gneisses and peridotites of Zabargad island, Red Sea: a Nd, Sr, Pb, and Os isotope study. J Geophys Res 100:22283–22297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blusztajn J, Hart SR, Shimizu N, McGuire AV (1995) Trace-element and isotopic characteristics of spinel peridotite xenoliths from Saudi Arabia. Chem Geol 123:53–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chaffey DJ, Cliff RA, Wilson BM (1989) Characterization of the St Helena magma source. In: Saunders AD, Norry MJ (eds) Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 42:257–276Google Scholar
  19. Davidson JP, Wilson IR (1989) Evolution of an alkali basalt-trachyte suite from Jebel Marra volcano, Sudan, through assimilation and fractional crystallization. Earth Planet Sci Lett 95:141–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deniel C, Vidal P, Coulon C, Vellutini PJ, Piguet P (1994) Temporal evolution of mantle sources during continental rifting: the volcanism of Djibouti (Afar). J Geophys Res 99:2853–2869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Denkler T, Franz G, Schandelmeier H (1994) Tectonometamorphic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Delgo suture zone, northern Sudan. Geol Rundsch 83:578–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. DePaolo DJ (1981) Trace element and isotopic effects of combined wallrock assimilation and fractional crystallization. Earth Planet Sci Lett 53:189–202Google Scholar
  23. Dugda MT, Nyblade AA, Julia J (2007) Thin lithosphere beneath the Ethiopian Plateau revealed by a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions. J Geophys Res 112. doi:10.1029/2006JB004918
  24. Ebinger CJ, Hayward N (1996) Soft plates and hot spots: views from Afar. J Geophys Res 101:21859–21876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ebinger CJ, Sleep N (1998) Cenozoic magmatism throughout East Africa resulting from impact of a single plume. Nature 395:788–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. El-Sayed MM, Furnes H, Abou Shagar S (2007) Alexandria Growth of the Egyptian crust in the northern East African Orogen: a review of existing models and proposed modifications. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Abhandlungen 183:317–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellam RM (2006) New constraints on the petrogenesis of the Nuanetsi picrite basalts from Pb and Hf isotope data. Earth Planet Sci Lett 245:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ewart A, Marsh JS, Milner SC, Duncan AR, Kamber BS, Amstrong RA (2004) Petrology and Geochemistry of Early Cretaceous Bimodal Continental Flood Volcanism of the NW Etendeka, Namibia. Part 1: introduction, Mafic Lavas and re-evaluation of mantle source components. J Petrol 45:59–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Franz G, Puchelt H, Pasteels P (1987) Petrology, geochemistry and age relations of Triassic and Tertiary volcanic rocks from SW Egypt and NW Sudan. J Afr Earth Sci 6:335–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Franz G, Pudlo D, Urlacher G, Haußmann U, Boven A, Wemmer K (1994) The Darfur Dome, western Sudan: the product of a subcontinental mantle plume. Geol Rundsch 83:614–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Franz G, Steiner G, Volker F, Puldo D, Hammerschmidt K (1999) Plume related alkaline magmatism in central Africa—the Meidob Hills (W Sudan). Chem Geol 157:27–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Franz G, Breitkreuz C, Coyle DA, El Hur B, Heinrich W, Paulick H, Pudlo D, Steiner G, Smith R (1997) Geology of the Alkaline Meidob Volcanic field, Late Cenozoic, Sudan. J Afr Earth Sci 25:263–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Furman T (2007) Geochemistry of East African Rift basalts: an overview. J Afr Earth Sci 48:147–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Furman T, Kaleta KM, Bryce JG, Hanan BB (2006a) Tertiary Mafic Lavas of Turkana, Kenya: Constraints on East African plume structure and the occurrence of high-μ Volcanism in Africa. J Petrol 47:1221–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Furman T, Bryce J, Rooney T, Hanan B, Yirgu G, Ayalew D (2006b) Heads and tails: 30 million years of the Afar plume. In: Yirgu G, Ebinger CJ, Maguire PKH (eds). The Afar Volcanic Province within the East African Rift System. Geological Society, London. Special Publications 259:95–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. George RM, Rogers NW (2002) Plume dynamics beneath the African plate inferred from the geochemistry of the Tertiary basalts of southern Ethiopia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 144:286–304Google Scholar
  37. Halliday AN, Lee DC, Tommasini S, Davies GR, Paslick CR, Fitton JG, James DE (1995) Incompatible trace elements in OIB and MORB and source enrichment in the sub-oceanic mantle. Earth Planet Sci Lett 133:379–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harms U, Schandelmeier H, Darbyshire DPF (1990) Pan-African reworked early to middle Proterozoic crust in NE-Africa west of the Nile: Sr and Nd isotope evidence. J Geol Soc Lond 147:859–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Harms U, Darbyshire DPF, Denkler T, Hengst M, Schandelmeier H (1994) Evolution of the Neoproterozoic Delgo suture zone and crustal growth in Northern Sudan: geochemical and radiogenic isotope constraints. Geol Rundsch 83:591–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hart SR (1984) A large-scale isotope anomaly in the southern hemisphere mantle. Nature 309:753–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hart SR (1988) Heterogeneous mantle domains: Signatures, genesis and mixing chronologies. Earth Planet Sci Lett 90:273–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hegner E, Pallister JS (1989) Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic characteristics of Tertiary Red Sea rift volcanics from the Central Saudi Arabian Coastal plain. J Geophys Res 94:7749–7755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Henjes-Kunst F, Altherr R, Baumann A (1990) Evolution and composition of the western Arabian peninsula: constraints from Sr-Nd isotope systematics of mantle xenoliths. Contrib Mineral Petrol 105:460–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Herzberg C, Zhang J (1996) Melting experiments on anhydrous peridotite KLB-1: compositions of magmas in the upper mantle and transition zone. J Geophys Res 101:8271–8295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Herzberg C, O’Hara MJ (2002) Plume-associated ultramafic magmas of Phanerozoic age. J Petrol 43:1857–1883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Herzberg C (2004) Geodynamic information in peridotite petrology. J Petrol 45:2507–2530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hofmann AW (1997) Mantle chemistry: the message from oceanic volcanism. Nature 385:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hofmann AW, Jochum KP, Seufert M, White WM (1986) Nb and Pb in oceanic basalts: new constraints on mantle evolution. Earth Planet Sci Lett 79:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hofmann C, Courtillot V, Féraud G, Rochette P, Yirgu G, Ketefo E, Pik R (1997) Timing of the Ethiopian flood basalt event and implications for plume birth and global change. Nature 389:838–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kieffer B, Arndt N, Lapierre H, Bastiene F, Bosch D, Pecher A, Yirgu G, Ayalew D, Weis D, Jerram DA, Keller F, Meugniot C (2004) Flood and Shield Basalts from Ethiopia: Magmas from the African Superswell. J Petrol 45:793–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Klitzsch E (1990) Paleogeographical development and correlation of Continental Strata (former Nubian Sandstone) in northeast Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 10:199–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kröner A, Stern RJ, Dawoud AS, Compston W, Reischmann T (1987) The Pan-African continental margin in northeastern Africa: evidence from a geochronological study of granulites at Sabaloka, Sudan. Earth Planet Sci Lett 85:91–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Küster D, Harms U (1998) Post-collisional potassic granitoids from the southern and northwestern parts of the Late Neoproterozoic East African Orogen: a review. Lithos 45:177–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Küster D, Liégeois JP (2001) Isotopic and geochemical study of high-grade metamorphic lithologies from Bayuda Desert, Sudan: new insights into the Neoproterozoic evolution of the East Sahara Craton. Precambrian Res 109:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Küster D, Liégeois J-P, Matukov D, Sergeev S, Lucassen F (2008) Zircon geochronology and Sr, Nd, Pb isotope geochemistry of granitoids from Bayuda Desert and Sabaloka (Sudan): evidence for a Bayudian event (920–900 Ma) preceding the Pan-African orogenic cycle (860–590 Ma) at the eastern boundary of the Saharan Metacraton. Precambrian Res 164:16–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Le Maitre RW (ed) (1989) A classification of igneous rocks and glossary of terms. Blackwell, London, p 183Google Scholar
  57. MacDonald R, Rogers NW, Fitton JG, Black S, Smith M (2001) Plume-lithosphere interactions in the generation of the basalts in the Kenya rift, East Africa. J Petrol 42:877–900Google Scholar
  58. Marques LS, Dupré B, Piccirillo EM (1999) Mantle source compositions of the Paraná Magmatic Province (southern Brazil): evidence from trace element and Sr-Nd–Pb isotope geochemistry. J Geodyn 28:439–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marty B, Pik R, Yirgu G (1996) Helium isotopic variations in Ethiopian plume lavas: nature of magmatic sources and limit on lower mantle contribution. Earth and Planet Sci Lett 144:223–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McDonough WF, Sun S-S (1995) Composition of the earth. Chem Geol 120:223–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McKenzie DP, Davies D, Molnar P (1972) Plate tectonics of the Red Sea and East Africa. Nature 224:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Menzies M, Murthy VR (1980) Nd and Sr Geochemistry of hydrous mantle nodules and their host alkali basalts: implications for local heterogeneities in metasomatically veined mantle. Earth Planet Sci Lett 46:323–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Meissner R, Mooney W (1998) Weakness of the lower continental crust: a condition for delamination, uplift and escape. Tectonophysics 296:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Reilly SY, Griffin WL, Poudjom Djomani YH, Morgan P (2001) Are lithospheres forever? Tracking changes in sub-continental lithospheric mantle through time. GSA Today 11:4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pallister JS, Stacey JS, Fischer LB, Premo WR (1988) Precambrian ophiolites of Arabia: geologic settings, U-Pb geochronology, Pb-isotope characteristics, and implications for continental accretion. Precambrian Res 38:1–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Palme H, O’Neill HStC (2004) Cosmochemical estimates of mantle composition. In: Holland HD, Turrekian KK (eds) Treatise on geochemistry, vol 2. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  67. Peate DW, Hawkesworth CJ (1996) Lithospheric to asthenospheric transition in low-Ti flood basalts from southern Paraná, Brazil. Chem Geol 127:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pik R, Deniel C, Coulon C, Yirgu G, Hofmann C, Ayalew D (1998) The Northwestern Ethiopian plateau flood basalts: classification and spatial distribution of magma types. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 81:91–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pik R, Deniel C, Coulon C, Yirgu G, Marty B (1999) Isotopic and trace element signatures of Ethiopian flood basalts: evidence for plume–lithosphere interactions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:2263–2279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pik R, Marty B, Hilton DR (2006) How many mantle plumes in Africa? The geochemical point of view. Chem Geol 226:100–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Poudjom Djomani YH, O’Reilly SY, Griffin WL, Morgan P (2001) The density structure of subcontinental lithosphere through time. Earth Planet Sci Lett 184:605–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ritsema J, Allen RM (2003) The elusive mantle plume. Earth Planet Sci Lett 207:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Roeder PL, Emslie PF (1970) Olivine-liquid equilibrium. Contrib Mineral Petrol 29:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rudnick RL, Gao S (2004) Composition of the continental crust. In: Rudnick RL (ed) Treatise on geochemistry. The Crust, vol 3. Elsevier, New York, pp 1–64Google Scholar
  75. Salters VJM, Stracke A (2004) Composition of the depleted mantle. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 5. doi:10.1029/2003GC000597.
  76. Satir M, Morteani G, Fuganti A, Drach VV (1991) K–Ar ages, Sr isotopic compositions and chemistry of late Cretaceous–Tertiary basalts from the Nubian Desert (northern Sudan). Eur J Mineral 3:943–955Google Scholar
  77. Scarsi P, Craig H (1996) Helium isotope ratios in Ethiopian Rift basalts. Earth Planet Sci Lett 144:505–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schandelmeier H, Reynolds P-O (eds) (1997) Paleogeographic-paleotectonic atlas of north-eastern Africa, Arabia, and adjacent areas. Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  79. Schilling J, Kingsley RH, Hanan BB, McCully BL (1992) Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic variations along the Gulf of Aden: evidence for Afar mantle plume–continental lithosphere interaction. J Geophys Res 97:10927–10966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sebai A, Stutzmann E, Montagner J-P, Sicilia D, Beucler E (2006) Anisotropic structure of the African upper mantle from Rayleigh and Love wave tomography. Phys Earth Planet Inter 155:48–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shaw JE, Baker JA, Menzies MA, Thirlwall MF, Ibrahim KM (2003) Petrogenesis of the largest intraplate volcanic field on the Arabian Plate (Jordan): a mixed lithosphere–asthenosphere source activated by lithospheric extension. J Petrol 44:1657–1679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shaw JE, Baker JA, Kent AJR, Ibrahim KM, Menzies MA (2007) The geochemistry of the Arabian lithospheric mantle - a source for intraplate volcanism? J Petrol 48:1495–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Stacey JS, Kramers JD (1975) Approximation of terrestrial lead evolution by a two-stage model. Earth Planet Sci Lett 26:207–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stacey JS, Stoeser DB (1983) Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian–Nubian Shield. Contrib Mineral Petrol 84:91–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stein M (2003) Tracing the plume material in the Arabian-Nubian shield. Precambrian Res 123:223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stein M, Hofmann AW (1992) Fossil plumes beneath the Arabian lithosphere? Earth Planet Sci Lett 114:193–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stein M, Navon O, Kessel R (1997) Chromatographic metasomatism of the Arabian–Nubian lithosphere. Earth Planet Sci Lett 152:75–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stern RJ (1994) Neoproterozoic (900–550 Ma) arc assembly and continental collision in the East African Orogen: implications for the consolidation of Gondwanaland. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 22:319–351Google Scholar
  89. Stern RJ (2002) Crustal evolution in the East African Orogen: a neodymium isotopic perspective. J Afr Earth Sci 34:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Stern RJ, Abdelsalam MG (1998) Formation of juvenile continental crust in the Arabian–Nubian Shield: evidence from Granitic rocks of the Nakasib Suture, NE Sudan. Geol Rundsch 87:150–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stewart K, Rogers N (1996) Mantle plume and lithosphere contributions to basalts from southern Ethiopia. Earth Planet Sci Lett 139:195–211Google Scholar
  92. Stoeser DB, Frost CD (2006) Nd, Pb, Sr, and O isotopic characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes. Chem Geol 226:163–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Stracke A, Hofmann AW, Hart SR (2005) FOZO, HIMU, and the rest of the mantle zoo. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 6. doi:10.1029/2004GC000824
  94. Sun SS, McDonough WF (1989) Chemical and isotopic systematics of oceanic basalts: implications for mantle composition and processes. In: Saunders AD, Norry MJ (eds) Magmatism in the Ocean Basins. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 42:313–345Google Scholar
  95. Taylor SR, McLennan SM (1985) The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  96. Teklay M, Kröner A, Mezger K (2002) Enrichment from plume interaction in the generation of Neoproterozoic arc rocks in northern Eritrea: implications for crustal accretion in the southern Arabian–Nubian Shield. Chem Geol 184:167–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vidal P, Deniel C, Vellutini PJ, Piguet P, Coulon C, Vincent J, Audin J (1991) Changes of mantle sources in the course of a rift evolution: the Afar case. Geophys Res Lett 18:1913–1916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Volker F, McCulloch MT, Altherr R (1993) Submarine basalts from the Red Sea: New Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic data. Geophys Res Lett 20:927–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Volker F, Altherr R, Jochum K-P, McCulloch MT (1997) Quaternary volcanic activity of the southern Red Sea: new data and assessment of models on magma sources and Afar plume-lithosphere interaction. Tectonophysics 278:15–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Weaver BL (1991) The origin of ocean island basalt end-member compositions: trace element and isotopic constraints. Earth Planet Sci Lett 104:381–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weinstein Y, Navon O, Altherr, R, Stein M (2006) The role of lithospheric mantle heterogeneity in the generation of plio-pleistocene alkali basaltic suites from NW Harrat Ash Shaam (Israel). J Petrol 47:1017–1050Google Scholar
  102. Willbold M, Stracke A (2006) Trace element composition of mantle end-members: Implications for recycling of oceanic and upper and lower continental crust. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 7. doi:10.1029/2005GC001005
  103. Wipki M (1995) Eigenschaften, Verbreitung und Entstehung von Kaolinlagerstätten im Nordsudan. PhD thesis, Technische Universität Berlin, Verlag Dr. Köster, Berlin, 213 pGoogle Scholar
  104. Woldetinsae G, Götze HJ (2005) Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas. J Afr Earth Sci (and the Middle East) 41:103–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Workman RK, Hart SR (2005) Major and trace element composition of the depleted MORB mantle (DMM). Earth Planet Sci Lett 231:53–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zimmer M, Kröner A, Jochum KP, Reischmann T, Todt W (1995) The Gabal Gerf complex: a Precambrian N-MORB ophiolite in the Nubian Shield, NE Africa. Chem Geol 123:29–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zindler A, Hart SR (1986) Chemical geodynamics. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 14:493–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Friedrich Lucassen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gerhard Franz
    • 2
  • Rolf L. Romer
    • 1
  • Dieter Pudlo
    • 2
    • 3
  • Peter Dulski
    • 1
  1. 1.GeoForschungsZentrum PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  2. 2.Fachgebiet Mineralogie-Petrologie, Technische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  3. 3.Faculty of Chemistry and Earth Sciences, Institute of Earth SciencesFriedrich-Schiller-Universität JenaJenaGermany

Personalised recommendations