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Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 153, Issue 3, pp 339–353 | Cite as

Magmatic graphite in dolomite carbonatite at Pogranichnoe, North Transbaikalia, Russia

  • A. G. Doroshkevich
  • F. WallEmail author
  • G. S. Ripp
Original Paper

Abstract

A recently discovered dolomite carbonatite at Pogranichnoe, North Transbaikalia, Russia, dated at 624 ± 3 Ma, contains xenoliths of calcite-bearing dolomite carbonatite with graphite spherulites. Apatite and aegirine are the other rock-forming minerals. Chemically the carbonatites are ferrocarbonatite and ferruginous calciocarbonatite. The graphite forms <1 mm up to 1.5 mm diameter spherulites, with Raman spectra similar to published spectra of microcrystalline, amorphous carbon and disordered graphite, with G and D bands at 1,580−1,600 cm−1 and at around 1,350 cm−1. Alteration has formed Fe-bearing calcite to Ca-bearing siderite compositions not previously reported in nature around the graphite along cracks and fractures. Mineral and stable isotope geothermometers and melt inclusion measurements for the carbonatite all give temperatures of 700°–900°. It is concluded that the graphite precipitated from the ferrocarbonatite magma. There are three candidates to control the precipitation of graphite (a) a redox reaction with FeII in the magma, (b) potential presence of organics in the magma (c) seeding of, or dissolution in, the magma of graphite/diamond from the mantle, and further work is required to identify the most important mechanism(s). Graphite in carbonatite is rare, with no substantial published accounts since the 1960s but graphite at other localities seems also to have precipitated from carbonatite magma. The precipitation of reduced carbon from carbonatite provides further evidence that diamond formation in carbonate melts at high mantle pressures is feasible.

Keywords

Dolomite carbonatite Graphite Transbaikalia 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Tony Wighton, John Spratt, Anton Kearsley and Terry Williams for help with analysis at the NHM (UK), Nikolay Karmanov and Sergey Kanakin for help with analysis at the Geological Institute SB RAS (Russia), Professor A.H. Rankin and Ms B. Beeskow for using the laser Raman equipment at Kingston University, UK. Ken Bailey, Alan Woolley, Ilya Veksler are thanked for useful discussions and information. Chris Stanley, Andy Fleet and Polly Hutchison helped to improve the text. Reviews by Keith Bell and an anonymous reviewer much improved the paper. The studies have been carried out with the support of the RFFR (grant 03-05-65270), Russian Science Support Foundation, Fund of Leading Scientific Schools of Russian Federation (NSch-2284.2003), a Royal Society (UK) incoming international short visit and INTAS grant 05-1000008-7938. This paper contributes to the list of ‘CERCAMS’ publications from The Natural History Museum.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geological Institute SB RASUlan-UdeRussia
  2. 2.Department of MineralogyThe Natural History MuseumLondonUK

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