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Peridotite xenoliths from Grenada, Lesser Antilles Island Arc

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Abstract

Ultramafic xenoliths comprising harzburgite, lherzolite (reacted harzburgite) and spinel-rich dunite, occur in alkali olivine basalts (M series) of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles island arc. Textures are protogranular, porphyroclastic and granular; the latter are restricted to dunites and areas of the harzburgites/lherzolites where interaction with host magma has occurred. Primary mineralogy comprises olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel. Harzburgites are residual from a fractional partial melting event totaling ~≤22%. Infiltration of harzburgite by (and reaction with) basalt has produced: a wehrlite, with partial dissolution of primary spinel, an increase in the oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) from primary values 1–2 log ƒO2 units above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer, to 2–2.5 log units above the buffer; reaction of orthopyroxene to form patches of intergrown olivine and clinopyroxene, and bronzite andesite glass (60 wt%, SiO2 18–20 wt% Al2O3 and 3–4 wt% Na2O) with flat to light rare earth element-depleted, chondrite-normalized abundances. Refertilisation of the mantle by reacting melts, producing a clinopyroxene-rich lithology, may form a source of ankaramitic (high-Ca) arc basalts.

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Acknowledgements

Jenny McPhan is thanked for completing much initial EMP work at UNE. Bob Speed provided some of the xenoliths. Bernie Wood is thanked for provision of the spinel standards and Matthew Thirlwall for supplying unpublished data for the Grenada lavas. Nick Ware fixed the Cr overlap on the Mn problem. The RSES LA-ICP-MS was sustained by Les Kinsley. Roger Heady assisted with SEM photographs. Thomas Cooper and antipodean "State of the Arc" meetings provided the inspiration for revisions following critical journal reviews by Al Brandon and Peter Kelemen. Tim Grove is thanked for his editorial encouragement and constructive criticism. I.J.P. and research costs were supported by an ARC Large Grant to R.J.A.

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Correspondence to R. J. Arculus.

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Editorial responsibility: T.L. Grove

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Parkinson, I.J., Arculus, R.J. & Eggins, S.M. Peridotite xenoliths from Grenada, Lesser Antilles Island Arc. Contrib Mineral Petrol 146, 241–262 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-003-0500-z

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Keywords

  • Olivine
  • Partial Melting
  • Laser Ablation Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry
  • Host Magma
  • Host Lava