We aimed to detect obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among school-age children presented with nocturnal enuresis (NE) and to identify the possible risk factors for OSA in them.
Sixty-six children aged > 5–16 years presented with NE were enrolled in the study. Children with urinary tract anatomical abnormalities or infection, intellectual disabilities, genetic syndromes, psychological issues, and diabetes mellitus were excluded. They were clinically examined, scored using sleep clinical record score (SCR), and subjected for full-night polysomnogram (PSG). Children with obstructive apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 2 episodes/hour (h) were considered as OSA.
Fifty-four children (81.8% of the recruited children) aged 8.3 ± 2.8 years agreed to undergo PSG as 68.5% had OSA with median obstructive AHI of 6.1 (3.7–13.2) episodes/h, median oxygen saturation of 97% and nadir of 88%. Thirty-three percent were obese with significantly higher AHI [7.0 (3.7–12.4) vs. 2.4 (1.3–6.1) episodes/h; p = 0.023]. SCR score correlated significantly with AHI (r2 = 0.462, p = 0.001) with 91% sensitivity in detecting OSA ≥ 5 episodes/h. Nasal obstruction, adenoid/adult facial phenotype, and arched palate were associated with OSA (p < 0.05).
NE is commonly associated with OSA especially in obese children. Nasal obstruction, abnormal facial phenotype, and high-arched palate were common risk factors.
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Apnea / hypopnea index
Area under the curve
Body mass index
Ear, nose and throat examination
Oxygen desaturation index
Obstructive sleep apnea
Body mass index percentile
Receiver operator characteristic curve
- SaO2 :
Arterial oxygen saturation
Sleep breathing disorders
Sleep clinical record
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Shafiek, H., Evangelisti, M., Abd-elwahab, N.H. et al. Obstructive Sleep Apnea in School-Aged Children Presented with Nocturnal Enuresis. Lung 198, 187–194 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00408-019-00304-6
- Sleep clinical record
- Obstructive apnea/hypopnea index
- Facial phenotype