pp 1–2 | Cite as

Unfolded Protein Response in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

  • Nektarios BarabutisEmail author
Letter to the Editor

The endothelial layer of the lung microvasculature regulates the traffic of blood fluid, electrolytes, and proteins crosswise the vascular wall. Inflammatory stimuli partner with multifarious messengers to reform the junction and adhesion proteins of the cytoskeleton, which in turn causes endothelial anomalies. Endothelial barrier dysfunction (EBD) due to lung injury increases the permeability across the endothelial and epithelial barriers of the lung and produces an influx of protein-rich edema fluid, endothelial hyperpermeability, and pulmonary dysfunction. ARDS represents the manifestation of severe EBD complications in hospitalized individuals. It is associated with non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema and respiratory abnormalities, often associated with lethal outcomes. Indeed, the unacceptable high mortality rates of ARDS suggest that the exploration of new therapeutic avenues towards this syndrome is an urgent need. The discovery of the molecular components that regulate vascular...



Dr. Barabutis’ is supported by the R&D, Research Competitiveness Subprogram (RCS) of the Louisiana Board of Regents through the Board of Regents Support Fund (LEQSF(2019-22)-RD-A-26), as well as by the NIGMS/NIH (5 P20GM103424-15, 3 P20GM103424-15S1).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Barabutis N, Schally AV, Siejka A (2018) P53, GHRH, inflammation and cancer. EBioMedicine 37:557–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barabutis N (2019) Unfolded protein response supports endothelial barrier function. Biochimie 165:206–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang C et al (2019) Growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor antagonist modulates lung inflammation and fibrosis due to bleomycin. Lung 197:541CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Basic Pharmaceutical and Toxicological Sciences, College of PharmacyUniversity of Louisiana MonroeMonroeUSA

Personalised recommendations