pp 1–9 | Cite as

Gene Variants, mRNA and NOD1/2 Protein Levels in Tunisian Childhood Asthma

  • Rafik BelhajEmail author
  • Wajih Kaabachi
  • Ikbel Khalfallah
  • Basma Hamdi
  • Kamel Hamzaoui
  • Agnes Hamzaoui



Asthma is a common respiratory childhood disease that results from an interaction between genetic, environmental and immunologic factors. The implication of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain 1 and 2 (NOD1/CARD4, NOD2/CARD15) was highlighted in many inflammatory diseases.


In this case-control study, we analyzed the association of three NOD2 polymorphisms and one NOD1 variant, in 338 Tunisian asthmatic children and 425 healthy Controls, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. We also assessed NOD1 and NOD2 mRNA and protein levels by qRT-PCR and ELISA techniques.


The homozygous AA genotype of rs2075820 was a risk factor for asthma (OR 2.39). The influence of the E266K variant in the presence of the heterozygous AG genotype was higher in male than female groups. The homozygous AA genotype was a risk factor associated with asthma, for patients aged between 6 and 18 years OR 2.39, IC95% (1.04–5.49) p < 0.01. The mRNA expression of NOD1, but not NOD2, was enhanced in asthma patients compared to Controls. We noted a significant difference between asthmatics and healthy controls in NOD1 protein expression (asthma patients : 31.18 ± 10.9 pg/ml, Controls: 20.10 ± 2.58 pg/ml; p < 0.001).


The NOD1 rs2075820 variant was associated with a higher childhood asthma risk and the NOD1 expression at mRNA and protein levels was significantly increased in asthma patients.


Childhood asthma NOD1/2 SNP mRNA PCR RFLP E266K 



This study was supported by the Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOC 44 KB)
408_2019_209_MOESM2_ESM.doc (70 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 69 KB)
408_2019_209_MOESM3_ESM.doc (42 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 41 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Sciences Tunis, Tunis El Manar UniversityTunisTunisia
  2. 2.Expression Moléculaire des Interactions Cellulaires et de leurs modes de Communication dans le Poumon, Medical Faculty of Tunis, UR/12-SP15Tunis El Manar UniversityTunisTunisia
  3. 3.Department of Respiratory DiseasesHospital A. MamiArianaTunisia
  4. 4.Unit Research Homeostasis and Cell dysfunctionMedicine Faculty of TunisTunisiaTunisia

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